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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

George O. White III, Tazeeb Rajwani and Thomas C. Lawton

The international strategies of multinational enterprises are increasingly augmented by insights on, and approaches to, external stakeholders and nonmarket dynamics. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The international strategies of multinational enterprises are increasingly augmented by insights on, and approaches to, external stakeholders and nonmarket dynamics. The rise of populism and increased geopolitical uncertainty have accelerated these efforts, particularly for business leaders anticipating and engaging external agents, events, and issues that challenge the strategic objectives of their enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper we explain why the increased preponderance of populism and geopolitical uncertainty are concurrently posing an existential threat to the post-Cold War global economy predicated on free trade and (relatively) open borders and, consequently, challenging the structures and strategies of international business.

Findings

We provide an overview of the four papers in our special issue and consider how each advances insights on how multinational enterprises effectively navigate the nonmarket uncertainties of the contemporary global economy. We then advance four important areas for international business research on multinational nonmarket strategies: (i) resilience and legitimacy; (ii), diversification; (iii), market and nonmarket strategy integration; and (iv), institutional arbitrage.

Research limitations/implications

We anticipate that nonmarket strategy scholars can build on these themes to assess how nonmarket strategies can better enable multinational enterprises to survive and thrive in an age of heightened global risk and uncertainty.

Originality/value

This paper and the related special issue provides novel theoretical insights by drawing attention to the relatively under-researched realm of multinational enterprise nonmarket strategy, particularly in populist contexts and during periods of geopolitical uncertainty. Importantly, we identify four promising domains – resilience and legitimacy, diversification, the integration of market and nonmarket strategy, and institutional arbitrage – for international business scholars investigating nonmarket strategy to consider. We anticipate that our paper, as well as other papers in this special issue, contribute further momentum to this burgeoning area of research.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Roberto Martin N. Galang, Rouselle F. Lavado, George O. White III and Jamil Paolo S. Francisco

The purpose of this study is to answer the research question: How do cooperative organizations perform when created by government fiat in an emerging market? Through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to answer the research question: How do cooperative organizations perform when created by government fiat in an emerging market? Through the use of institutional and agency theory, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the efficiency of the cooperative form of organization and investor-owned firms-investigating how the social–political structures in a community affect the efficiency of cooperatives vis-à-vis investor-owned firms. This paper also attempts to offer a better understanding of how government quality and organizational size influence performance outcomes between different organizational forms specifically in the Philippines.

Design Methodology Approach

The empirical analysis of this study was conducted among electric distribution utilities in the Philippines. Firm-level data was generated for 133 distributors, consisting of 119 electric cooperatives and 14 investor-owned companies. Panel data regressions were ran to test all hypotheses.

Findings

Cooperative organizations operate at a less efficient rate than investor-owned firms in the Philippines, even when controlling for firm-specific factors such as size, customer density and profitability. In addition, the efficiency of these cooperative organizations is more strongly influenced by the quality of the local government than investor-owned firms.

Originality Value

Positive externalities generated by the propagation of cooperatives on local communities may be based primarily on our understanding of how cooperatives have functioned largely in western contexts. Within the context of Southeast Asia, where national socio-political structures may be more dysfunctional, this paper observes that there is an equivalent negative externality caused by the tendency of cooperatives to replicate the political mismanagement of the community around it.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

George O. White III, Thomas A. Hemphill, Tazeeb Rajwani and Jean J. Boddewyn

The purpose of this study is to apply the institution-based view and resource dependence theory in arguing that perceived deficiencies in a legal service sector where a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to apply the institution-based view and resource dependence theory in arguing that perceived deficiencies in a legal service sector where a foreign subsidiary operates will influence the intensity of its political ties with actors in both the regulatory and legal arenas. The authors further theorized that these relationships will vary across governance environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research context for this study was multinational enterprises (MNE) wholly owned foreign subsidiaries and international joint ventures (IJVs) operating in the Philippines and Thailand. Data for most variables in this study came from primary survey data collected in 2018 from senior managers of MNE WOSs and IJVs operating in the Philippines and Thailand.

Findings

The authors’ analysis of 352 foreign subsidiaries operating in the Philippines and Thailand show that, in a flawed democracy, perceived deficient legal services enhance the intensity of foreign subsidiary political ties with government actors in both the regulatory and legal arena. However, in a hybrid regime, perceived deficient legal services enhance only the intensity of foreign subsidiary political ties with government actors in the regulatory arena. The authors’ findings also suggest that the relationship between perceived deficiencies in legal service sector and the intensity of political ties is stronger for foreign subsidiaries that operate in heavily regulated industries across both a flawed democracy and hybrid regime. Conversely, the authors do not find the market orientation of these foreign subsidiaries to play a role in this process.

Research limitations/implications

The authors’ study was unable to control for whether managerial perceptions of deficient legal services were well informed at the local or federal level. This issue raises the question of will the presence of an in-house legal department influence managerial perceptions with regard to deficiencies within a legal service sector? Based on these limitations, the authors suggest that future research can further extend political ties research by using a fine-grained analysis in investigating the antecedents of managerial perceptions of legal services within different legal jurisdictions.

Originality/value

The political ties literature has largely argued that political ties are more prevalent in environmental contexts comprising institutional voids as MNEs attempt to mitigate volatility associated with the lack of developed institutional infrastructure (e.g. Blumentritt & Nigh, 2002; Bucheli et al., 2018). However, the concept of institutional voids is very broad and still rather abstract in nature. Hence, scholars have yet to fully understand what types of institutional voids may drive MNE foreign subsidiary political tie intensity in varying governance contextsThe authors’ study attempts to contribute to this important line of research by investigating how one type of institutional void, namely, perceived deficiencies in the legal service sector, can influence the intensity of political ties in varying governance environments.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2015

George O. White III, Amon Chizema, Anne Canabal and Mark J. Perry

The purpose of this paper is to draw from organizational ecology and institutional theory, the authors suggest that there will be a curvilinear relationship between legal…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw from organizational ecology and institutional theory, the authors suggest that there will be a curvilinear relationship between legal system uncertainty and foreign direct investment (FDI) attraction in Southeast Asia. The authors extend theory by arguing that this is because uncertainty will provide opportunities for FDI that seek this form of operating environment, leveraging legal system uncertainty as a basis for competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test and find support for the hypotheses using FDI data from nine Southeast Asian countries for the years 1995-2005.

Findings

In this paper, the authors hypothesize and find that the relationship between legal system uncertainty and FDI attraction is curvilinear in nature, such that FDI attraction decreases with legal system uncertainty down to an inflection point, but then increases beyond this point; and that the relationship between legal system uncertainty and FDI attraction is moderated by government intervention in the host country economy, such that the strength of this relationship is greater when government intervention is high rather than when it is low. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future inquiry are presented.

Originality/value

Conventional wisdom suggests that legal system uncertainty will negatively affect FDI attraction. However, to date, research on the effects of legal system uncertainty on FDI attraction in emerging markets has received very little attention. The aim of this research study is to shed new light on how, under certain conditions, legal system uncertainty will attract FDI in Southeast Asia.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Richard A. Posthuma, George O. White, James B. Dworkin, Oscar Yánez and Maris Stella Swift

The purpose of this study is to investigate how national culture and proximity to national borders can influence the conflict styles that co‐workers use between themselves.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how national culture and proximity to national borders can influence the conflict styles that co‐workers use between themselves.

Design/methodology/approach

In this experiment, samples were drawn from regions near the US Mexican border further north in the USA and further South in Mexico. Total n=549. Participants were presented with different conflict styles of co‐workers and asked how they would respond. A new measure of national origin was developed and used to assess affinity with a particular culture based on familial lineage.

Findings

This study shows that conflict resolution styles of co‐workers in the USA are different from those in Mexico. Culture also moderates the relationship among the conflict resolution styles of the co‐workers themselves. Mexicans were generally more contending and less yielding to co‐workers than Americans. However, Mexicans were also more likely than Americans to respond to contending co‐workers by accommodating or by compromising with the co‐worker. National Origin and border location influenced choice of conflict resolution styles in both American and Mexican workers.

Originality/value

Proximity to national borders can influence degrees of cultural identity, which can in turn, influence preferred conflict styles. Degrees of national cultural identity can be measured using familial lineage.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2007

George O. White, Janice R.W. Joplin and M. Feras Salama

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory based on transaction cost economics to help explain how firms venturing into different foreign markets should properly…

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1897

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory based on transaction cost economics to help explain how firms venturing into different foreign markets should properly formulate and implement contractual governance mechanisms to create greater efficiency, lower costs, and minimize conflict with partners.

Design/methodology/approach

Defines and discusses a conceptual framework of the determinants regarding contracts and strategies used to manage conflict in foreign ventures through the integration of foreign venture conflict resolution, contract, and transaction cost economics literature.

Findings

Suggests that perceived transaction costs will predict which contractual governance mechanism and which conflict resolution strategy a partner firm will choose when resolving conflict in a foreign venture. Postulates that consistency of conflict resolution strategy with contract type will impact the performance of the foreign venture, and that cultural distance, relative power, and interest alignment will all play a moderating role in this process.

Originality/value

The model demonstrates the necessity of examining how coupling certain conflict resolution strategies and contract types will impact foreign venture performance.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Increase in populism is fueling anti-globalization sentiments and negatively impacting on the investment, expansion and location plans of many multinational enterprises. By focusing on social legitimacy, resilience and institutional arbitrage, such organizations can develop appropriate nonmarket strategies to help alleviate risk and better adapt to the changing business environment.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers’ hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 37 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Allan Metz

President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the…

Abstract

President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the Clinton presidency, systematically have sought to undermine this president with the goal of bringing down his presidency and running him out of office; and that they have sought non‐electoral means to remove him from office, including Travelgate, the death of Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster, the Filegate controversy, and the Monica Lewinsky matter. This bibliography identifies these and other means by presenting citations about these individuals and organizations that have opposed Clinton. The bibliography is divided into five sections: General; “The conspiracy stream of conspiracy commerce”, a White House‐produced “report” presenting its view of a right‐wing conspiracy against the Clinton presidency; Funding; Conservative organizations; and Publishing/media. Many of the annotations note the links among these key players.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

Steve D. Mobley, Nina Daoud and Kimberly A. Griffin

While many may assume that all students enrolled at historically Black campuses are African American, recent trends suggest these campuses are becoming increasingly…

Abstract

While many may assume that all students enrolled at historically Black campuses are African American, recent trends suggest these campuses are becoming increasingly diverse. In this chapter, we challenge common perceptions about historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), highlighting both what is known and yet to be known about enrollment trends and the experiences of students from diverse backgrounds at ­historically Black campuses. The chapter presents data from the National Center for Education Statistics, tracking changes in enrollments over time. These data are coupled with a review of research on the experiences of non-Black students at HBCUs, largely focusing on White students, but also integrating the narratives of a growing Latina/o/x student population. HBCUs can also be ethnically diverse, and we examine the heterogeneity within the Black student experience based on ethnic identity and immigrant status. We close with recommendations for research and practice, calling for increased attention to how non-Black populations experience, navigate, and engage HBCU campus communities to promote student outcomes and opportunities for learning across difference.

Details

Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

Keywords

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