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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Angela S.M. Irwin and George Milad

The purpose of this paper is to look at current discourse on the topic of crypto-currencies, more specifically Bitcoins, and their application to funding acts of terror…

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3392

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at current discourse on the topic of crypto-currencies, more specifically Bitcoins, and their application to funding acts of terror. The paper clearly establishes the risks posed by this new payment technology and value transfer system to assist in the process of funding, planning and implementing acts of terror.

Design/methodology/approach

Publications, blogs and sites published and administered by terrorists groups and their supporters are examined to determine their interest in leveraging emerging payment and value transfer systems to facilitate the funding, planning and implementation of terror attacks. Press releases and other publications are also examined to determine whether crypto-currencies have been used by these groups in fund raising, fund transfer or recent terror attacks.

Findings

Although it is difficult to find concrete evidence of largescale use of Bitcoins and other crypto-currencies by terrorist groups and their supporters, there is strong evidence to suggest that they have been linked to a number of terror attacks in Europe and Indonesia. Supporters of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), jihadists and terrorist organisations are actively looking to and promoting the use of new and emerging technologies, such as Bitcoin, to mitigate some of the risks associated with traditional fund transfer methods. Some websites associated with terrorist organisations have started to collect donations in Bitcoins. Many Bitcoin ATMs and Bitcoin exchanges are located in countries that have seen significant numbers of foreign fighters join ISIS in the Middle East and are also positioned in countries that have seen increased risk of terror attack. These present a significant risk because they allow for the seamless, anonymous transfer of funds to and from terrorist groups and their supporters. The paper highlights the need for further in-depth research into reliable ways to circumvent the current difficulties experienced in differentiating illicit transactions from legitimate ones and establishing reliable means of attribution.

Originality/value

Using a document published by ISIS, which provides would-be jihadists detailed instructions on how they can get to Syria or Iraq without being detected, a set of models were created showing how this could be achieved using Bitcoins alone. From this scenario, red flag indicators and suspicious behaviour models have been created to determine whether they can be identified during detailed analysis of the Bitcoin blockchain which will be conducted in later stages of research.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

George Milad

The aim of this paper is to detail the changes needed to ensure compatibility of printed‐circuit board (PCB) surface finishes with the use of lead‐free solders and in…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to detail the changes needed to ensure compatibility of printed‐circuit board (PCB) surface finishes with the use of lead‐free solders and in lead‐free assembly processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the various popular solderable surface finishes that are currently available. It then reviews them in terms of the required adaptations necessary to meet the requirements of the Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Directive and to ensure compliance, whilst meeting the performance needs of the product.

Findings

Some of the available and popular finishes, such as organic solderability preservatives and tin require modifications while, others including silver, direct immersion gold and electroless nickel immersion gold are transitioning well into the world of lead‐free. Electroless nickel, electroless palladium, immersion gold is one finish that performs better with lead‐free assembly than it did with conventional eutectic solder‐based approaches.

Originality/value

The paper provides a concise overview of the implications for specific surface finishes when making choices for use with lead‐free and RoHS compliant PCB soldering and assembly.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

George Milad

The purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of nickel corrosion, also known as “black pad” during gold deposition of EN1G.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of nickel corrosion, also known as “black pad” during gold deposition of EN1G.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an accumulation of personal experience and observations of the problem over a period of ten years. It incorporates the experience of the Global Trade Association connecting the electronic industries (IPC) plating committee as it set out to write the IPC electroless nickel‐immersion gold (ENIG) specification‐4552.

Findings

Understanding how corrosion occurs will go a long way in helping printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturers stay clear of the issue and make high quality ENIG finished PCBs.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of the data presented has been substantiated.

Originality/value

The paper details how, by good understanding of the mechanism of formation of corrosion products, manufacturers can steer clear from the problem.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Shigeo Hashimoto, Masayuki Kiso, Yukinori Oda, Horoshi Otake, George Milad and Don Gudaczauskas

To report on research on the alternative surface finish “direct gold on copper”, including reaction mechanism, methods of deposition and end uses.

Abstract

Purpose

To report on research on the alternative surface finish “direct gold on copper”, including reaction mechanism, methods of deposition and end uses.

Design/methodology/approach

Examines the deposition reaction of the electroless flash gold plating bath, and the effects of the copper surface roughness and deposition time on the deposit and solderability characteristics.

Findings

Direct immersion gold is only partially immersion and mostly electroless in deposition mode. The surface is applicable to soldering for both leaded solder and lead‐free solders. The surface is also wire bondable.

Originality/value

The paper offers details of a new alternative surface finish for use in printed circuit board fabrication as well as in packaging applications. The paper shows the electroless deposition mode of the process. The finish is ideally suited where Rf losses must be minimized. It is suitable for soldering as well as for wire bonding.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

George Milad

The purpose of this paper is to present new developments in electrolytic tin plating designed to eliminate the formation of whiskers over time, when tin is plated on copper.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present new developments in electrolytic tin plating designed to eliminate the formation of whiskers over time, when tin is plated on copper.

Design/methodology/approach

Two main approaches were undertaken to achieve the desired results. The first was modification of the copper substrate prior to plating and the second was to modify the crystal structure of the tin deposit.

Findings

With the use of specific additives to the tin plating bath it was possible to achieve a crystal structure similar to that of the non‐whiskering tin/lead.

Research limitations/implications

The technology is presently available commercially to plate electronic parts such as connectors and lead frames, etc.

Originality/value

The paper details a modified electroplating tin bath that produces a deposit that will not form whiskers over time.

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

R.W.M. Kwok, K.C.M. Chan and M.W. Bayes

A new generation of electroless nickel immersion gold process has been developed that is targeted to solve the “Black Nickel issue”. The development involved the…

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1243

Abstract

A new generation of electroless nickel immersion gold process has been developed that is targeted to solve the “Black Nickel issue”. The development involved the understanding of the details of the nanostructure of electroless nickel, the interface between Ni and Au, Ni and solder, and the control of the porosity of the Au surface. A suitable increase in phosphorous content in the nickel deposit reduces the hyperactive corrosion during immersion gold process. In addition, a stabilizer system that gives consistent performance across the entire bath life was used to improve the simplicity of bath control. This combination gives many advantages for the applications in printed wiring boards.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Martin Goosey

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105

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Martin Goosey

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105

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Martin Goosey

Downloads
356

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Leila Hashemi, Armin Mahmoodi, Milad Jasemi, Richard C. Millar and Jeremy Laliberté

In the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored. The goal of addressing the issue is to reduce delivery times and system costs for retailers so that routing and distributor location may be determined.

Design/methodology/approach

By adding certain unique criteria and limits, the issue becomes more realistic. Customers expect simultaneous deliveries and pickups, and retail service start times have soft and hard time windows. Transportation expenses, noncompliance with the soft time window, distributor construction, vehicle purchase or leasing, and manufacturing costs are all part of the system costs. The problem's conceptual model is developed and modeled first, and then General Algebraic Modeling System software (GAMS) and Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) algorithms are used to solve it in small dimensions.

Findings

According to the mathematical model's solution, the average error of the two suggested methods, in contrast to the exact answer, is less than 0.7%. In addition, the performance of algorithms in terms of deviation from the GAMS exact solution is pretty satisfactory, with a divergence of 0.4% for the biggest problem (N = 100). As a result, NSGAII is shown to be superior to MOSPSO.

Research limitations/implications

Since this paper deals with two bi-objective models, the priorities of decision-makers in selecting the best solution were not taken into account, and each of the objective functions was given an equal weight based on the weighting procedures. The model has not been compared or studied in both robust and deterministic modes. This is because, with the exception of the variable that indicates traffic mode uncertainty, all variables are deterministic, and the uncertainty character of demand in each level of the supply chain is ignored.

Practical implications

The suggested model's conclusions are useful for any group of decision-makers concerned with optimizing production patterns at any level. The employment of a diverse fleet of delivery vehicles, as well as the use of stochastic optimization techniques to define the time windows, demonstrates how successful distribution networks are in lowering operational costs.

Originality/value

According to a multi-objective model in a three-echelon supply chain, this research fills in the gaps in the link between routing and location choices in a realistic manner, taking into account the actual restrictions of a distribution network. The model may reduce the uncertainty in vehicle performance while choosing a refueling strategy or dealing with diverse traffic scenarios, bringing it closer to certainty. In addition, two modified MOPSO and NSGA-II algorithms are presented for solving the model, with the results compared to the exact GAMS approach for medium- and small-sized problems.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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