I recently agreed to participate in a study in which the researcher was interested in learning how academic scholars make the personal choice to pursue their specific…
I recently agreed to participate in a study in which the researcher was interested in learning how academic scholars make the personal choice to pursue their specific field of inquiry. She wanted me to explain my personal fascination with conflict, and to begin by reflecting on my adolescence as a formative driver for my interests. I remarked that the significant developmental markers in my life centered on major conflict episodes that, in many ways, also have served to define a generation. My junior high school years were defined by the JFK assignation, while my high school years witnessed the MLK and RFK assignations and the attending civil unrest in Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago. In college, I remember May 4, 1970 as if it were yesterday because I attended Bowling Green State University, a sister school of Kent State, and activists staged a very intense demonstration on campus just hours after the Kent State events. Finally, graduate school was marked by the Yom Kippur War and the fall of Saigon.
This research proposes and evaluates hypotheses about patterns of communication in a multi‐party, multi‐issue negotiation. Data were from 36 four‐person groups. We found…
This research proposes and evaluates hypotheses about patterns of communication in a multi‐party, multi‐issue negotiation. Data were from 36 four‐person groups. We found that the majority of groups initiated negotiations with a distributive phase and ended with an integrative phase—strong support for Morley and Stephenson's (1979) rational model of negotiation. We identified transitions between both strategic orientations (integration, distribution) and strategic functions (action, information), but found that the first transition was more likely to result in a change of orientation than of function and that negotiators were more likely to change either orientation or function (single transition) than to change both aspects of the negotiation simultaneously (double transition). Finally, we determined that negotiators used process and closure strategies to interrupt distributive phases and redirect negotiations to an integrative phase.
The Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), a national Indian organization concerned primarily with tribal governance issues, has sponsored numerous projects during the…
The Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), a national Indian organization concerned primarily with tribal governance issues, has sponsored numerous projects during the 1980s which suggest that better models of communication and consensus‐building are desperately needed within Indian tribal communities. Due in part to the use of forms of problem‐solving that are incongruent with tribal values and cultural patterns, many Indian communities have been paralyzed in their efforts to develop consensus on strategic plans. While many tribes have experimented with various forms of conflict management techniques, careful consideration must be given to the appropriateness of the approach employed Because the cultural traditions of Indian communities are rooted in a consensual approach to problem‐solving, dispute resolution approaches imposed by non‐Indian law and bureaucracies often conflict with tribal values. This paper reports the attempt of one tribe, the Winnebago in Nebraska, to introduce a system of planning and problem‐solving adequate for dealing with the needs of the tribal community in a culturally appropriate manner.
Despite widespread interest in the gig economy, academic research on the topic has lagged behind. The present chapter applies organizational theory and research to compose…
Despite widespread interest in the gig economy, academic research on the topic has lagged behind. The present chapter applies organizational theory and research to compose a working model for understanding participation in the gig economy and how gig work may impact worker health and well-being. Drawing from past research this chapter defines the gig economy in all its diversity and advances a framework for understanding why individuals enter into gig economy. Next, the authors discuss how various characteristics of the gig economy and gig workers can be understood as both demands and resources that influence how gig work is likely to be experienced by the individual. To understand how these characteristics are likely to influence worker health and well-being, we draw from past research on alternative work arrangements and entrepreneurship, as well as the limited extant research on the gig economy. Finally, a research agenda is proposed to spur much needed research on the gig economy and its workers.
Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people participate in martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine motivation factors that influence an individual's participation in martial arts to provide leaders of the industry with meaningful managerial implications. The researchers collected data from the 2004 Battle of Columbus Martial Arts World Games IV, one of the most popular martial arts events in the US. The results of a series of MANOVA tests revealed that these martial arts participants (N = 307) are highly motivated by growth-related motivation (e.g. value development and actualisation). In addition, the findings indicate that motivation of martial arts practitioners varies across types of martial arts disciplines, competition orientation and past experiences. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed
In this article, I address connections between processes at the micro (e.g., negotiation) and macro or contextual levels of analysis. The discussion situates process…
In this article, I address connections between processes at the micro (e.g., negotiation) and macro or contextual levels of analysis. The discussion situates process analysis in the broader settings in which the interactions take place. The first major section shows how various contextual factors may influence micro‐level processes. These factors include events, structures or institutions, and cultures. In the second major section, I consider the ways that small‐group processes may influence the macro‐level context. Societal (organizational, international) changes may result from such processes as those that occur in problem‐solving workshops, educational exchanges, and formal negotiations, including the objectives sought and strategies used, the tone and content of rhetoric displayed, and the formats and procedures devised. The article concludes with a way to conceptualize the linkages between processes and structures at the different levels.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of USA Executive Order 13224, one of the most important US counter‐terrorist finance measures, on corporations…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of USA Executive Order 13224, one of the most important US counter‐terrorist finance measures, on corporations operating in countries with designated terrorist organizations.
The effects of Executive Order 13224 are focused on the case of Chiquita Brands International, a major US banana‐exporting corporation that operated in Uraba, Colombia until 2004. The US Government prosecuted Chiquita for “engaging in transactions” with an illicit, Colombian paramilitary group considered by the US a Foreign Terrorist Organization and as a specially‐designated global terrorist. This paper presents the duress defense that Chiquita could have raised at trial under US federal law.
Executive Order 13224 was drafted hastily and under pressure leading to over‐inclusive language and over‐broad implementation. Chiquita's case suggests that Executive Order 13224, drafted with the intention of reducing terrorist funding, has made it possible for an extortion victim to be prosecuted for payments it has not chosen to make. This paper will suggest narrowly tailoring the language of Executive Order 13224 or providing an exculpatory provision.
Counter‐terrorist finance measure Executive Order 13224 has not been sufficiently examined by scholars. Research on this topic should go hand in hand with enquiry into possible defenses for corporations operating in countries with designated terrorist organizations and having to make extortion payments.
Suggestions are put forward for corporations operating in countries with designated terrorist organizations as well as for drafters of counter‐finance terrorist measures.
Although the designation of terrorist organizations under the executive order has been discussed, few scholars have addressed cases of over‐broad application of the executive order. The unexamined case of Chiquita is a unique case in that the extortion victim, and not the extortion perpetrator, is prosecuted. Also, Chiquita was prosecuted for an activity (making extortion payments to the Autodefensas Unidas Campesinas that became a crime after Chiquita began its engagement with such an activity. Furthermore, examining this case thoroughly is important because it has repercussions on at least two public policy levels: the US' War on terrorism and the rights and remedies of corporations investing in countries with designated terrorist organizations.