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The primary intention of this research paper is to systemically identify and discuss the longitudinal embedding of the nature of the changing role of first‐tier managers…
The primary intention of this research paper is to systemically identify and discuss the longitudinal embedding of the nature of the changing role of first‐tier managers (FTMs) – drawing particular attention to the trends, typical characteristics and complexities associated with their role.
The paper carried out a literature survey using a long‐cycle approach – a systemic and in‐depth survey of the literature from the early Industrial Revolution era to the twenty‐first century in order to pin‐point the main phases of the transition of the FTM's people management role. The author's four‐factor framework for decision making vis‐à‐vis the role of FTMs was used to trace whether the characteristics and issues linked with the role today are typical of those associated with the role in the past, and the degree to which lessons have been learned.
Importantly, the long‐cycle analysis revealed that the FTM's role has been through three core phases from the early industrial revolution era, and is currently in the fourth phase. That is, the manager‐in‐charge, the manager‐in‐the‐middle, the manager‐on‐the‐margin and the manager‐in‐charge‐plus. Whilst drawing attention to the complexities associated with the evolution process, the cycle shows that it is possible to conceptualise each phase and identify the key factors linked to the FTM's changing role successively. This drew attention to the fact that the success or failure of this role can be determined by five key factors, which characterise it – definition of the role, training/development of FTMs, perception/attitude of the primary stakeholders of the role (including FTMs), broader organisational support of FTMs (whether lacking or present), and their performance/performance management. Furthermore, the findings showed that, if these key factors are not considered from an in‐depth historical perspective, the FTM's people management role will remain a major organisational dilemma.
The literature survey was quite general, although the literature on the manufacturing industry and the UK are the main focus.
The paper establishes the trends in the management of FTMs and their people management role using a long‐cycle approach. To date, few integrated studies on people management devolution to FTMs have been undertaken that seek to identify the key phases of the transition and the complexities associated with the evolution of the role during these times. Therefore, the paper addresses the imbalance by reflecting on the nature of the FTM's people management role over a long period, and developing a conceptual framework for pin‐pointing and analysing the problems faced in managing FTMs strategically.
ON April 23rd this year, when all countries in the world will be celebrating the Quater‐centenary of Shakespeare's birthday, the Shakespeare Memorial Library in Birmingham will have attained a majority of one hundred years. Although founded in 1864 the scope of the library was first envisaged by George Dawson, President of the local Shakespeare club in a letter to Aris's Birmingham Gazette of 1861.
ENGINE testing has never been a subject to take for granted. Even thirty years ago, when test facilities were far from the sophisticated entities they are today, aerospace…
ENGINE testing has never been a subject to take for granted. Even thirty years ago, when test facilities were far from the sophisticated entities they are today, aerospace engineers were well aware of the necessity of regular testing. Then, as now, it not only ensured air worthiness but it also extended the flying life of the engine.
Milk, the universally perfect food, its compositional quality and bacteriological purity causing few qualms nowadays in this country and outbreaks of milk‐borne disease relatively rare, it may come as a surprise that there is another aspect of milk consumption causing discussion and not a little controversy in medical circles. There is an increasing awareness of milk allergy in infancy and in certain adult disorders, evidenced less by serological tests than by the relief afforded by milk‐free diets and the return of symptoms on the re‐institution of a milk diet. Skin tests also are not particularly reliable but the serological tests have at least demonstrated anti‐bodies to milk proteins in most artificially fed babies after the age of seven weeks (Gunther, M. et al, 1960).
1916, the most difficult year in the history of the library movement, has passed not without some satisfaction to library workers. The war dominated everything, and in its atmosphere most intellectual movements have paused somewhat so far as practical activities were concerned. At the end of the financial year in March, the voice of the Philistine was prominent and strident, and many reductions were made in the rate grants to public libraries. Few, however, did more than cripple their activities, and on the whole a fair measure of public sanity prevailed. In the circumstances the wider progress of the library movement has been small, but there has been progress. Unostentatiously, but systematically, the Carnegie Trustees have urged rural library schemes upon several county councils, and have made grants to urban libraries for new buildings, the erection of which, however, they have required to be postponed until the peace. The tercentenary of Shakespeare found librarians and library authorities awake and interested, and much good work was done. Towards the end of the year commercial libraries were discussed with remarkable unanimity in most of the great cities, and actually materialised in the fine experiment at Glasgow described in our last issue. In so far as librarians are concerned, the year has been eventful for the calling away of nearly all remaining men of military age. In connection with this the military authorities in many districts have shown a complete indifference to the intellectual requirements of the people. It is difficult to say how many library workers are now with the Colours, but six hundred would be a very conservative estimate. Some, alas, of the most promising men in the profession have fallen. An endeavour is being made by the Library Assistants' Association to preserve a record of all who have gone forth for the Empire. Naturally, library appointments have been few, and most of those that have been made have been of a temporary nature. On the literary side, too, librarianship has been practically sterile in this country. The book by Messrs. Gower, Jast and Topley, on photographic record work is a remarkable exception, but is not entirely a book of library methodology. America has not produced very much, but we noted a useful book by Mr. Arthur L. Bailey on library bookbinding, which appeared in the middle of the year. Throughout the year the Library Association has pursued a policy of masterly inactivity, and has missed most of the opportunities for constructive schemes which war time has offered. Its general meetings were abandoned in London, its Council has met irregularly, and it has eluded practically every problem which it ought to have faced. We have been consistently critical of this state of affairs, but we still believe in the Library Association, and our criticism, however trenchant, has not been to destroy but to revivify and accelerate. We do not think that librarians can do without the Association, and in all our attacks upon its stagnation we have kept this view clearly before us. The President of the Association, while condoning the suspension of the general meetings, has generously filled the gap made by their omission with the interesting reunions at the Royal Society of Medicine. Hope of better things has been raised by the belated establishment of the Technical Libraries Committee, to which we look for a forward and aggressive policy. The Library Assistants' Association has wisely refused to follow the example of its seniors. The few monthly meetings it has held have been intensely practical and focussed upon the problems of the hour. We hope they will continue in spite of the increased railway fares which in the new year have added difficulty to travelling. The establishment of the North Central Library Association provided an immensely important part of England with a means of creating and circulating library opinion. This brief chronique of the doings of the year leaves us hopeful if not contented. Financial and staff problems are likely to increase while the war endures, but having surmounted these and our other difficulties thus far, we look forward with confidence to similar success.
The role of the public reference library today is unclear. As a result there is a loss of purpose, staff are confused and collections are being weakened or broken up. Examines the history of the large urban reference libraries and the aims and motivations of their protagonists and early librarians. Concludes that many of these aims are still valid. The decline of the reference library coincides with the rise of information science, new service philosophies, and the weakening of public access to our printed heritage. Argues that there is a need to develop regional book and information centres, a need therefore for regional reference libraries.
I'VE said it before, and I'll say it again: Eastbourne is an excellent place for a conference, and I set out for it after five years' absence with the hope that its handsome and genial presence would produce something better than the mixture of ordinary, obvious and sometimes inaudible papers that have been a constituent of more than one intervening conference. That towns can affect such occasions is no doubt a farfetched conceit, but they certainly affect me; as soon as I arrived the environmental magic worked, and old friends and new faces were seen in the golden light of perfect autumn weather.