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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Thomas Georgiadis and George Christopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the investigation of gender inequalities in the labour market at the regional level in Greece throughout the years preceding and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the investigation of gender inequalities in the labour market at the regional level in Greece throughout the years preceding and following the economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising microdata from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) database from 2005 up to the most recent available, the authors construct the Total Earnings Gap Index, a composite index at the individual level which incorporates gender differentials in aspects related to employment, work intensity and earnings. This approach is further complemented by the results of the econometric analysis (a probit model for the probability of being in employment and a Heckman selection model for the determinants of hourly pay and hours worked), which portray the impact of gender on a set of labour-related characteristics.

Findings

The findings of the analysis indicate a widespread reduction of the gender gap; however, this appears to be mainly the result of a sharper fall in employment among men, hence pointing towards a “race to the bottom” process which presents few – if any – signs of an increase of women’s economic independence. The emerging picture points towards a trend of regional convergence in gender gaps, while also highlighting that similar gender equality outcomes are, in certain cases, shaped by radically different dynamics.

Originality/value

This paper uses an innovative composite index which provides a multi-dimensional depiction of gender inequality in the Greek labour market. This index has been introduced by Eurostat and has been applied at the country level, with this paper being the first – to the authors’ knowledge – to apply it at the regional level. Additionally, by examining years before and throughout the crisis, the present analysis adopts a dynamic perspective, offering valuable insight into the seismic shifts that Greece’s labour market structure has undergone during this period.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

I. Scott, A. Vukovic and P. Sewell

The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of conjugate‐gradients (CG) as a means to accelerate the convergence of the iterative time‐reversal algorithm used for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of conjugate‐gradients (CG) as a means to accelerate the convergence of the iterative time‐reversal algorithm used for optimisation of electromagnetic devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical time‐domain transmission line modelling method is used for time‐reversal optimisation. A comparison of the standard and CG time‐reversal is shown for two examples of microwave bandpass filter optimisation.

Findings

The paper demonstrates the time‐reversal optimisation that uses the CG matrix solver for perturbing the time reversal mirrors (TRM) fields.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the perturbation procedure of the CG time‐reversal and compares it to the standard time‐reversal optimisation. Two examples of microwave band pass filter optimisation have been considered and in each case it was demonstrated that CG time‐reversal significantly accelerates the optimisation process compared to the standard time‐reversal simulations.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Chris Nash and Andrew Smith

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Robert Charnock and Keith Hoskin

This paper brings insights from accounting scholarship to the measurement and reporting challenges of metagovernance approaches to sustainable development. Where…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper brings insights from accounting scholarship to the measurement and reporting challenges of metagovernance approaches to sustainable development. Where scholarship on metagovernance—the combination of market, hierarchical and network governance—proposes deductive approaches to such challenges, we contend that a historically informed “abductive” approach offers valuable insight into the realpolitik of intergovernmental frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a Foucauldian “archaeological–genealogical” method to investigate the inclusion of climate change as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). It analyses more than 100 documents and texts, tracking the statement forms that crystallise prevailing truth claims across the development of climate and SDG metagovernance.

Findings

We show how the truth claims now enshrined in the Paris Agreement on Climate Change constrained the conceptualisation and operationalisation of SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The paper thereby reframes recent measurement and reporting challenges as outcomes of conceptual conflicts between the technicist emphasis of divisions within the United Nations and the truth claims enshrined in intergovernmental agreements.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates how an archaeological–genealogical approach may start to address the measurement and reporting challenges facing climate and SDG metagovernance. It also highlights that the two degrees target on climate change has a manifest variability of interpretation and shows how this characteristic has become pivotal to operationalising climate metagovernance in a manner that respects the sovereignty of developing nations.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Abstract

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Carlos Oliveira Santos

Since 2004, the British Government has delivered a national policy on social marketing that has created a new frame of reference in this field. This paper aims to study…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 2004, the British Government has delivered a national policy on social marketing that has created a new frame of reference in this field. This paper aims to study the genesis, evolution and implementation of the policy process that led to an important development in British public health.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth multifaceted single case study, mixing qualitative and quantitative data including participatory research, enabled by a cognitive approach based on elements of knowledge, ideas, representations and social beliefs in the elaboration of a public policy.

Findings

This approach to understanding the British policy on social marketing process demonstrates a useful explanatory capacity, producing a comprehensive articulation of the main cognitive, normative, and instrumental dimensions of this policy, including its significant mutations influenced by the 2008 Great Recession and subsequent political evolution.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has followed the British social marketing policy’s implementation in England. In Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, this national policy had specific developments that it was not followed in our study In general, subject to complex historical, social and political conditions, this is a field that preserves its dynamism and the ability to question concepts and processes. Ever seeking new directions and solutions, it requires an ongoing research study.

Practical implications

Conclusions speak in favour of a prescriptive framework for a national policy on social marketing that can inform other government entities’ efforts to develop similar policies in other countries. A correct understanding of such a political process can lead to better management of its development and its consequent contribution to improving social marketing policy and interventions.

Social implications

A proper conception and management of a social marketing policy can contribute to improving the well-being of citizens.

Originality/value

It is the first time that this specific cognitive approach has been applied so systematically to a national social marketing policy through a long-term research, providing a prescriptive framework for other’ efforts to develop similar policies.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Richard Cebula, James E. Payne, Donnie Horner and Robert Boylan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after allowing for the impacts of economic and quality of life factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses two-stage least squares estimation controlling for factors contributing to cost of living differences across states.

Findings

The results reveal that an increase in labor market freedom reduces the overall cost of living.

Research limitations/implications

The study can be extended using panel data and alternative measures of labor market freedom.

Practical implications

In general, the finding that less intrusive government and greater labor freedom are associated with a reduced cost of living should not be surprising. This is because less government intrusion and greater labor freedom both inherently allow markets to be more efficient in the rationalization of and interplay with forces of supply and demand.

Social implications

The findings of this and future related studies could prove very useful to policy makers and entrepreneurs, as well as small business owners and public corporations of all sizes – particularly those considering either location in, relocation to, or expansion into other markets within the USA. Furthermore, the potential benefits of the National Right-to-Work Law currently under consideration in Congress could add cost of living reductions to the debate.

Originality/value

The authors extend the literature on cost of living differentials by investigating whether higher amounts of state-level labor market freedom act to reduce the states’ cost of living using the most recent annual data available (2016). That labor freedom has a systemic efficiency impact on the state-level cost of living is a significant finding. In our opinion, it is likely that labor market freedom is increasing the efficiency of labor market transactions in the production and distribution of goods and services, and acts to reduce the cost of living in states. In addition, unlike previous related studies, the authors investigate the impact of not only overall labor market freedom on the state-level cost of living, but also how the three sub-indices of labor market freedom, as identified and measured by Stansel et al. (2014, 2015), impact the cost of living state by state.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2019

Maciel M. Queiroz, Susana Carla Farias Pereira, Renato Telles and Marcio C. Machado

The Industry 4.0 phenomenon is bringing unprecedented disruptions for all traditional business models and hastening the need for a redesign and digitisation of activities…

Abstract

Purpose

The Industry 4.0 phenomenon is bringing unprecedented disruptions for all traditional business models and hastening the need for a redesign and digitisation of activities. In this context, the literature concerning the digital supply chain (DSC) and its capabilities are in the early stages. To bridge this gap, the purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for digital supply chain capabilities (DSCCs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a narrative literature approach, based on the main Industry 4.0 elements, supply chain and the emerging literature concerning DSC disruptions, to build an integrative framework to shed light on DSCCs.

Findings

The study identifies seven basic capabilities that shape the DSCC framework and six main enabler technologies, derived from 13 propositions.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework can bring valuable insights for future research development, although it has not been tested yet.

Practical implications

Managers, practitioners and all involved in the digitalisation phenomenon can utilise the framework as a starting point for other business digitalisation projects.

Originality/value

This study contributes to advancing the DSC literature, providing a well-articulated discussion and a framework regarding the capabilities, as well as 13 propositions that can generate valuable insights for other studies.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Robert Anthony Allen, Giannis Panagoulis and Gareth Reginald Terence White

In order to address operational effectiveness in the banking sector caused by the 2008 global economic crisis, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to address operational effectiveness in the banking sector caused by the 2008 global economic crisis, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of operational wastes that exist within four large Greek banks.

Design/methodology/approach

A Delphi study was undertaken with ten managers and ten employees.

Findings

The waste of underutilised people is found to be the dominant form of waste present and affecting the efficiency of banking operations, and managers and employees consider the waste of underutilised people as having a significant influence on the efficiency of the banking sector.

Practical implications

This has implications for managers of banking operations needing to address efficiencies in an increasingly competitive global economic environment. The paper also highlights the drawbacks of analysing typologies of waste across organisations and industrial sectors.

Originality/value

While some studies have examined the overall efficiency banking sector, to date, none has explored the nature of the inefficiencies that manifest as waste.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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