This article reviews research published in secular management journals that examines what the world’s largest religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism…
This article reviews research published in secular management journals that examines what the world’s largest religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, and Islam) say about management. In terms of how religion informs management, the literature identifies two basic means: (1) written scriptures (e.g., Analects, Bible, Quran) and (2) experiential spiritual practices (e.g., prayer, mindfulness). In terms of what religion says about management, the emphasis tends to be either on (1) enhancing, or (2) liberating mainstream management. Studies based on scriptures typically either enhance or liberate management, whereas empirical research based on spiritual disciplines consistently point to liberation. Implications are discussed.
A defining feature of international business is the necessity for people from diverse cultural backgrounds to interact and collaborate but intercultural interaction is…
A defining feature of international business is the necessity for people from diverse cultural backgrounds to interact and collaborate but intercultural interaction is difficult and may give rise to disagreement and conflict. I have been working on the dynamics that promote positive intercultural interaction in the international business context, and two streams of my research, one empirical and the other conceptual, are reviewed here. The first stream is concerned with fairness issues surrounding the pay disparity between locals and expatriates in multinational enterprises operating in China, which has implications for MNC operations in other emerging economies. My research has shown that the pay disparity is associated with negative reactions from local employees but some management practices associated with the relationship between locals and expatriates, attributions made by locals, and salient norms about the pay disparity can buffer such negative reactions. In this research program, the focus is not on the actual interaction between locals and expatriates. To address this gap, a conceptual framework is presented, which provides insight about the factors that contribute to positive interaction between locals and expatriates. This paper ends with implications for future research on intercultural interaction in the MNC context.
We explore the effects of three categories of fit on US‐China joint‐venture performance using four performance measures. Many studies prescribe strong fit across multiple…
We explore the effects of three categories of fit on US‐China joint‐venture performance using four performance measures. Many studies prescribe strong fit across multiple categories as necessary for high performance, but little rigorous analysis supports this. Three important threads of existing “fit” research resonate in the literature: strategic, cultural and organizational fit. We analyze an original survey dataset of over 80 US‐China JVs, and test for effects of fit‐categories using two measures for each thread. Additionally, multiple control factors give a compelling look at a complete model of fit’s effects on JV performance. Objective congruence (strategic fit) among JV partner‐firms, impacts two performance‐measures. Efficacy of managerial communications (cultural fit) also matters, as does harmony regarding hiring decisions (organizational fit). Our findings are a step forward empirically, and partly resolve persistent questions about partner‐fit in JVs and performance.
Compares and contrasts the contractual roles of modern waybills against the traditional straight bills of lading in the context of Greek, US and English law. Chronicles…
Compares and contrasts the contractual roles of modern waybills against the traditional straight bills of lading in the context of Greek, US and English law. Chronicles the development of international lading bills; identifies the emergence of straight bills and waybills to ameliorate the logistical problems associated with order bills of lading. Discusses the legal status and contractual roles of these lading bills in the context the legislative provisions and associated case law in each of the three countries. Concludes that sea waybills (regulating marine transport of goods) and straight bills of lading have, in essence, the same contractual status, despite the confused and unconsolidated picture of international lading provisions and practices. Recommends measures ‐ involving amendments to English legislation ‐ to consolidate the regulation of international trade.
The aim of this paper is to present the latest advances in real‐time airborne hyperspectral sensing applications in identifying and mapping the likely spots to be zeroed…
The aim of this paper is to present the latest advances in real‐time airborne hyperspectral sensing applications in identifying and mapping the likely spots to be zeroed in for the SAR operations.
A Sabah Air GAF Nomad N22B low altitude fixed wing aircraft equipped with an AISA airborne hyperspectral imaging system flew over the steep gradient carved by very narrow valleys, ridges, precipitous escarpments and ravines, extensively covered by thick virgin forest of the highlands. The study was carried out by an AISA sensor, which is a complete system that consists of a compact hyperspectral sensor head, miniature GPS/INS sensor for precise positioning, data acquisition unit and Caligeo post‐processing software.
These UPM‐APSB's AISA flights demonstrated that quality real‐time hyperspectral images could be pre‐processed on‐board the aircraft and become accessible to the SAR committee members for quick ground SAR within two hours after the flight. The combined geospatial information technologies were a major breakthrough in the Malaysian SAR real‐time imaging technique.
It is expected that future precise locations of the suspected targets can be transmitted via very high frequency radio communications and become accessible to the SAR ground members such as the commandos VAT 69. Real‐time airborne hyperspectral imaging will benefit strategic SAR and help reduce the loss of lives in future helicopter crashes in the Bario‐Ba'Kelalan areas.
The purpose of this paper is to model the development of e‐purchasing behavior by examining the simultaneous effects of information, web interactivity, satisfaction and…
The purpose of this paper is to model the development of e‐purchasing behavior by examining the simultaneous effects of information, web interactivity, satisfaction and positive attitude (PA) on purchase intentions (PIs).
Development and testing of four competing models from surveys of 402 consumers.
The results highlight the appropriateness of the multiple mediation model (MMM). The findings also indicate that both the dual mediating role of PA and the simple mediating role of positive emotional bond (PEB) in the model significantly improve the explanation of e‐purchasing model process. Particularly, path coefficients for two groups (male vs female) are significantly different. Female consumers have a tendency to accept valuable information and to participate in interactivity.
In this study, Armstrong et al.'s notion is adopted to show that the role of the scientist is changed from advocating a single hypothesis to evaluating a number of competing models. The current research attempts to empirically test competing mechanisms of the variables and their affects on PI.
We use insights from resource dependence, institutional theories and social movement theories to examine the indigenization of subsidiary management in the multinational…
We use insights from resource dependence, institutional theories and social movement theories to examine the indigenization of subsidiary management in the multinational company (MNC). We discuss the effects of interdependence with local organizations, access to critical resources, and MNC legitimacy in the host country on the indigenization of subsidiary management. We consider the impact of local and extra-local social movement activity as well as the local political opportunity structure in the host country. The organizational variables in the framework include international strategy and experience. We suggest implications for further international management research and practice involving the operation of foreign subsidiaries.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost effectiveness of the existing conservation grant disbursement mechanism in George Town, Penang. It reports the effect…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost effectiveness of the existing conservation grant disbursement mechanism in George Town, Penang. It reports the effect of disclosure of conservation preferences by the conservation agency on the conservation cost.
A test bed laboratory experiment is reported on, in which house owners competed in a sealed bid auction to obtain conservation subsidies/grants. In one treatment, owners knew the preference of, or priority given by, the regulator to certain types of conservation efforts, whereas in the second treatment, the regulator concealed this priority.
The results showed that owners tailored their applications to the given priority rather than to the true conservation costs in the preference‐known treatment group. Although the selected conservation works did not differ significantly between the two treatments, owners misrepresented their true conservation costs.
Given the lack of consensus of the tool to measure ex post conservation value, the study relies on conservation efforts/works to disburse subsidy/grant. Allocative efficiency can be enhanced if this information is available.
The presented results suggested that concealing priority information could be used to improve the cost‐efficiency of existing disbursement policy.
Drawing from the problems of asymmetry information between house owners and conservation agency, the study provided evidence in support of the idea that disbursement of conservation fund was based on the conservation efforts/inputs. In terms of costs, not disclosing the preferences information could encourage competition and reduced conservation costs.
This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge…
This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge management in the service industry is sparse. This research seeks to examine absorptive capacity and its four capabilities of acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation and their impact on effective knowledge management. All of these capabilities are strategies that enable external knowledge to be recognized, imported and integrated into, and further developed within the organization effectively. The research tests the relationships between absorptive capacity and effective knowledge management through analysis of quantitative data (n = 549) drawn from managers and employees in 35 residential aged care organizations in Western Australia. Responses were analysed using Partial Least Square-based Structural Equation Modelling. Additional analysis was conducted to assess if the job role (of manager or employee) and three industry context variables of profit motive, size of business and length of time the organization has been in business, impacted on the hypothesized relationships.
Structural model analysis examines the relationships between variables as hypothesized in the research framework. Analysis found that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities correlated significantly with effective knowledge management, with absorptive capacity explaining 56% of the total variability for effective knowledge management. Findings from this research also show that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities provide a useful framework for examining knowledge management in the service industry. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the perceptions held between managers and employees, nor between respondents in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Furthermore, the size of the organization and length of time the organization has been in business did not impact on absorptive capacity, the four capabilities and effective knowledge management.
The research considers implications for business in light of these findings. The role of managers in providing leadership across the knowledge management process was confirmed, as well as the importance of guiding routines and knowledge sharing throughout the organization. Further, the results indicate that within the participating organizations there are discernible differences in the way that some organizations manage their knowledge, compared to others. To achieve effective knowledge management, managers need to provide a supportive workplace culture, facilitate strong employee relationships, encourage employees to seek out new knowledge, continually engage in two-way communication with employees and provide up-to-date policies and procedures that guide employees in doing their work. The implementation of knowledge management strategies has also been shown in this research to enhance the delivery and quality of residential aged care.
Various achievements of Australia in the field of applied ethics from the 1980s to 2016 are outlined. The review covers academic scholarship, research and teaching; the ethics of business and actions to build ethics into the structures of enterprises. This follows the 3-fold categorization developed by De George (2012). A brief account of the formation and history of the Australian Association for Professional and Applied Ethics is included, as is a selection of scandals involving Australian organisations. Australia is shown to have made a significant contribution to the academic discipline of applied ethics and to have been aware of its position, distant from the English-speaking West and in the midst of nations of the global south.