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The purpose of this paper is to explain how to model moderating effects of composites using partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. It provides the methodological…
The purpose of this paper is to explain how to model moderating effects of composites using partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. It provides the methodological underpinning of moderating effects in general and describes the various approaches for forming the interaction term, i.e., the product indicator approach, the two-stage approach, and orthogonalization.
The paper discusses the use of standardized vs unstandardized construct scores and introduces spotlight analysis as a useful way to report findings.
Researchers should rely on unstandardized estimates when analyzing moderating effects. Centering or orthogonalization can help improve the interpretability of path coefficients.
PLS software implementations should facilitate unstandardized estimates.
This paper formulates step by step guidelines for analyzing moderating effects of composites using PLS path modeling. It is the first to propose spotlight analysis for PLS path modeling.
The technology acceptance model (TAM) has been one of the most influential theories in the information technology literature, but it has not been used in the marketing…
The technology acceptance model (TAM) has been one of the most influential theories in the information technology literature, but it has not been used in the marketing literature to understand consumer acceptance of international web sites. Thus, the purpose of this study is to use TAM to study international consumers' acceptance and use of MNEs web sites designed specifically for their country.
This study applies and extends the TAM to study the B2C international web sites of American and Japanese MNEs for Brazilian, German, and Taiwanese consumers. In total, there were 2,243 usable questionnaires and the structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data.
This study provides strong support for the applicability of TAM in explaining international web site usage in Brazil, Germany, and Taiwan and shows that cultural adaptation is an important explanatory variable that should be included in the TAM when exploring cross‐cultural issues.
The value of this paper is that it not only extends the use of TAM to study user acceptance of international e‐commerce web sites, but also sees how the cultural adaptation of international web sites impacts the attitude and the purchase intention of consumers.
The use of air-conditioners (ACs) is on the increase in the developing world, with exacerbating compounding effect on carbon footprints. With this development, there is…
The use of air-conditioners (ACs) is on the increase in the developing world, with exacerbating compounding effect on carbon footprints. With this development, there is the expectation that developing countries would begin to appreciate and understand occupant behaviours in the use of ACs towards combating climate change, especially as building energy consumption is heavily influenced by the behaviour of its occupants. This study aims to identify occupant behaviours that leads to efficient use of ACs in public buildings so that these can be factored into developing guidelines for improving energy efficiency in buildings.
Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), survey questionnaire was used to collect data in office buildings in Kumasi, Ghana. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was employed for the analysis.
Switching on fan(s) as alternative to ACs has a path coefficient of 0.527, suggesting that it will have the most positive impact on energy consumption as far as AC use is concerned. The second occupant behaviour with a positive impact on energy consumption for AC use is opening windows for natural ventilation accounting for 0.351 significant path coefficient. Wearing of light or heavy clothing as a means of conserving energy achieved 0.174 impact coefficient while occupant behaviour of switching off ACs when leaving the room came last in the ranking, with an impact coefficient of 0.146. TBP is validated in this model, given that all the four occupant behaviours had their perceived behavioural control (PBC) having less impact on the behaviour compared to the behavioural attitude (BA) and the subjective norm (SN).
This research focused on public buildings used as offices, and the findings may not be applicable to private company buildings and also residential properties. Given that Ghana and, for that matter, many developing countries rely heavily on thermal plant for electricity generation, the climate change implications of the findings are discussed.
It is recommended that behaviours of occupants should be considered and factored in building energy predictions to bridge the energy performance gap. Subsequently, project managers, designers and energy consultants are encouraged to provide fans and openable windows in offices, even if there is going to be an air-conditioning provisions.
Originality emanates from the paper being at the forefront of helping to understand occupants' behaviour in the use ACs and associated climate change implications in a developing country context. One of the new variables introduced, switching on fans as an alternative to ACs, achieved the highest path coefficient and has important implication for occupant behaviour in the use of ACs in the literature.