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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Hueiting Tsai, Shengce Ren and Andreas B. Eisingerich

The purpose of this paper is to theorize and empirically examine the effects of intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification on firm performance in China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theorize and empirically examine the effects of intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification on firm performance in China. Furthermore, it investigates they key firm capabilities, which moderate the relationships between intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the authors studied 366 listed companies that invest in mainland China. The authors used the Taiwan Economy Journal database to construct a panel data set from 2005 to 2014 and employed panel regression estimations as part of the empirical analyses.

Findings

The authors find that the effect of regional diversification on firm performance is significantly influenced by the contexts of the expansion. More specifically, the results show that the effect of intra-regional geographic diversification on firm performance takes the form of a U-shape relationship. In contrast, the authors find that inter-regional geographic diversification has a negative effect on firm performance. Firm marketing, research and development (R&D) and managerial capabilities moderate these relationships.

Research limitations/implications

First, the companies studied in this research are mainly Taiwanese manufacturers with investments in mainland China. Second, the current model can be expanded by exploring additional process explanations and moderators in future research.

Practical implications

An important practical implication of this research is that when firms choose an intra-regional expansion strategy in China, they should adopt a moderate provincial diversification strategy in the invested region and reinforce its marketing capability to enhance firm performance. A careful consideration of a firm’s marketing, R&D and managerial capabilities is needed for successful regional diversification strategies in the China market.

Originality/value

The findings of this study contribute significantly to the existing literature on firms’ regional diversification. First, the authors explore and empirically test intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification strategies in China. The authors find that the effect of regional diversification on firm performance varies according to the contexts of the expansion (for instance, global, regional, in a single country). Second, this study furthers the research theme of intra- and inter-regional diversification by introducing and investigating previously unexplored firm capabilities as part of the framework.

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Jiming Hu, Ruhua Huang and Yubo Wang

The purpose of this paper is to visualize the collaboration network among regions in library science (LS) in China. Using various methods and tools of social network…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to visualize the collaboration network among regions in library science (LS) in China. Using various methods and tools of social network analysis and geographical visualization, results were obtained, showing the structure and patterns of research collaborations in topological and geographical views, as well as the geographical distributions of contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample includes all studies published in the top journal in library science in China from 2006 to 2015. First, co-occurrence data representing collaborations among regions was extracted from author affiliations. Second, the topological network of collaboration was generated by applying social network analysis tools and descriptive statistics, network indicators of the collaboration network and research communities were calculated. Third, the topological network was projected into a geographical map with corresponding coordinates and distances using geographical tools. Finally, the topological network maps and the geographical maps were produced for visualization.

Findings

The levels of contribution are very unbalanced between regions, and overall research collaboration is low. Beijing, Hubei and several other areas are central and significant regions in China; other regions are mostly connected with central ones through direct collaborations. Research collaborations in LS research in China are mostly distributed in the east and south of China, being centralized in the “Beijing–Hubei–Shanghai” triangle zone, as well as within the triangle’s extending zones. Finally, there are three distinct research communities that connect closely within themselves and loosely between them. The Beijing community is relatively centralized in geography, while other communities are scattered.

Originality/value

This study applied various methods and tools of social network analysis and geographical mapping analysis to reveal the collaboration structure and patterns among regions in LS research in China. Visualized maps in topological and geographical views help shed new light on research efforts.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Lex Donaldson

Matrix structures are complex and conflict prone, so multinational enterprises (MNEs) would utilize them only if they conferred some advantage over less complex…

Abstract

Matrix structures are complex and conflict prone, so multinational enterprises (MNEs) would utilize them only if they conferred some advantage over less complex organizational structures. Based upon the information-processing view, a theory of matrix advantage is proposed. It is supported by a secondary analysis of data from a major study of German MNEs. Matrix structures are shown to have an advantage over the elementary structural types. Specifically, the matrix structures fit higher levels of transnational strategy than elementary structures. Transnational strategy is assessed by two concepts: firm internationalization (involvement in foreign sales, manufacturing, and research and development (R&D)) and corporate integration (intracompany transfers). Moreover, three-dimensional matrices are associated with higher levels of transnational strategy than are two-dimensional matrices, confirming the gains from having additional structural dimensions. Matrix structures arise because of the need to simultaneously fit high levels of both firm internationalization and corporate integration. Matrices fit the transnational strategy type of Bartlett and Ghoshal. Implications are drawn for the relationship between the head office and the subsidiary. The matrix often subjects the subsidiary to conflicting expectations from the head office, which it can attempt to manage. Similarly, the head office is challenged by the task of integrating the information that comes from different dimensions of the matrix.

Details

Managing, Subsidiary Dynamics: Headquarters Role, Capability Development, and China Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-667-6

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

David R. Sloan, Damon Aiken and Alan C. Mikkelson

The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of regional geographic brand congruency (GBC) on brand trust, brand parity, perceived value, brand honesty and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of regional geographic brand congruency (GBC) on brand trust, brand parity, perceived value, brand honesty and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses an experimental method in two studies to test hypotheses derived from the literature.

Findings

This research conceptualizes GBC as the relationship between products/services and geographic regions that are authentic, credible and fitting. Results from the two studies support the hypothesis that brands with regional GBC have higher levels of consumer evaluation compared to brands with geographic incongruence or with no geographic reference at all.

Research limitations/implications

This research offers insight into the decision to name a brand. If one is going to associate a product with a regional geographic location, it is more effective to use a location that is fitting as it applies to that product; otherwise, it would be best to avoid a geographic association in a brand name.

Originality/value

The exploration of regional geographic brand congruency in relation to outcomes of brand trust, brand parity, perceived value, purchase intentions and honesty offers new insights into the nature and role of place images.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2017

Jens Eklinder-Frick and Åse Linné

In this chapter, the authors discuss how the features of the business landscape affect policies aiming to promote regional development. Regional development policies have…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors discuss how the features of the business landscape affect policies aiming to promote regional development. Regional development policies have been central in the European Union and at the single-country level. Measures taken to promote development in a geographical area, based on the concept of clusters and (national or regional) innovation systems, often fall short of their objectives. That is discussed against the findings on features of the business landscape that emphasise its heterogeneity and the importance of specific couplings within and across geographical areas. Prior Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) research emphasised the importance of firm-specific linkages to places and across places. One consequence is the relatedness of one place with other places, which implies that crossing the (imaginary) boundaries of a place appears to be the essence of business activity. The chapter concludes by highlighting how regional policies can benefit from acknowledging and taking into account firm-specific interdependences.

Details

No Business is an Island
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-550-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2005

Alan M. Rugman

I am honored to receive the Booz Allen Hamilton/strategy+business Eminent Scholar Award in International Management. I am even more honored to follow in the footsteps of…

Abstract

I am honored to receive the Booz Allen Hamilton/strategy+business Eminent Scholar Award in International Management. I am even more honored to follow in the footsteps of such distinguished previous recipients of the AOM-IMD (Academy of Management-International Division) Distinguished Scholar Award as: John Child, Christopher Bartlett, Sumantra Ghoshal, John Dunning, and Yves Doz. Like them, I shall reflect here on my past contributions to scholarship, and then use this work as a building block for the major part of this paper, which is on the need for new and relevant theory in the field of international management.

Details

Internalization, International Diversification and the Multinational Enterprise: Essays in Honor of Alan M. Rugman
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-220-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Piet M.A. Eichholtz, Martin Hoesli, Bryan D. MacGregor and Nanda Nanthakumaran

Analyses data from the USA and UK to determine whetherdiversification within a region by property type is better thandiversification between regions within a property…

Abstract

Analyses data from the USA and UK to determine whether diversification within a region by property type is better than diversification between regions within a property type. Compares both strategies to full diversification by both property type and region. Calculates and compares property type and regional correlation matrices. Produces efficient frontiers and calculates principal components to determine if there are dominant property type or regional dimensions to real estate returns. Suggests that for the USA a purely retail portfolio diversified over all regions would have been almost as effective as a fully diversified portfolio. In the UK, there is less diversity across regions within retail property. Overall, there is no simple conclusion applicable to all regions and all property types in either country.

Details

Journal of Property Finance, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0958-868X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2018

Christian Stohr

This chapter does three things. First, it estimates regional gross domestic product (GDP) for three different geographical levels in Switzerland (97 micro regions, 16…

Abstract

This chapter does three things. First, it estimates regional gross domestic product (GDP) for three different geographical levels in Switzerland (97 micro regions, 16 labor market basins, and 3 large regions). Second, it analyzes the evolution of regional inequality relying on a heuristic model inspired by Williamson (1965), which features an initial growth impulse in one or several core regions and subsequent diffusion. Third, it uses index number theory to decompose regional inequality into three different effects: sectoral structure, productivity, and comparative advantage.

The results can be summarized as follows: As a consequence of the existence of multiple core regions, Swiss regional inequality has been comparatively low at higher geographical levels. Spatial diffusion of economic growth occurred across different parts of the country and within different labor market regions. This resulted in a bell-shaped evolution of regional inequality at the micro regional level and convergence at higher geographical levels. In early and in late stages of the development process, productivity differentials were the main drivers of inequality, whereas economic structure was determinant between 1888 and 1941. The poorest regions suffered from comparative disadvantage, that is, they were specialized in the vary sector (agriculture), where their relative productivity was comparatively lowest.

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Zaher Hallab and Kyungmi Kim

A sample of 234 U.S. travelers was surveyed at various U.S. airports. A survey instrument was used to measure their perceptions of Mississippi as a vacation destination…

Abstract

A sample of 234 U.S. travelers was surveyed at various U.S. airports. A survey instrument was used to measure their perceptions of Mississippi as a vacation destination, their intentions to visit and to reveal their socio-demographic characteristics including their place of residence. The factor analysis of 14 tourist-oriented attributes related to participants' perceptions of Mississippi as a tourist destination revealed three factors: “Cultural and Natural Experience,” “Scenery and Environment,” and “Entertainment.” The environmental factor revealed a significant difference between groups; participants residing in the Western region were not strongly attracted by Mississippi's environmental factor. On the contrary, participants residing in the Southern region perceived strongly Mississippi's entertainment components, especially casinos. In term of intentions to visit, 73% of participants from the Southern region indicated that they would somewhat unlikely or very unlikely visit Mississippi compared to 71% of participants from the Western region who indicated a desire to visit the mentioned destination. This study offers substantial theoretical and practical implications about geographical and cultural distances and their effects on a destination's tourist image.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-769-8

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Luis Vinicio Losilla, Alejandra Engler and Verena Otter

The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework that examines the dynamics of internationalization strategies employed by export companies in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework that examines the dynamics of internationalization strategies employed by export companies in the agricultural sector of emerging economies over time, with a focus on the locus of destination markets of the Chilean fruit sector. Thus, the objective is to identify conceptual and empirical deviations from existing research on export firms participating in non-agricultural sectors of industrialized countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The matrix of multi-nationality developed by Aggarwal et al. (2011) is extended by incorporating the firm category of “host region” and the dimensions scale and time. This framework is utilized to classify 233 Chilean fresh fruit exporters according to their internationalization strategies based on a geographical distribution of their exports. A uni- and bivariate longitudinal analysis is conducted over a seven-year period (2009–2015) to explore the dynamics of this internationalization process.

Findings

A significant number (12.75 percent) of firms classified as “host regional” are identified, and thus a clear difference in internationalization strategies when compared to non-agricultural sectors in industrialized countries. Simultaneously, similarities in these sectors can be found. Most firms are “transregionally” (65.12 percent) or “globally” oriented (16.06 percent), mainly following a linear internationalization path when considering the number of export markets. But there is also evidence of “born-global” firms, which mainly follow non-linear internationalization paths in more geographically and psychically distant markets.

Research limitations/implications

The extended framework developed in this research can be applied to future studies, particularly in the case of economies where a significant proportion of firms are predominantly focusing their export strategies on one single international market. Since this study focuses on one national sector as a prime example, further studies on other countries and sectors may provide additional evidence of its generalizability.

Practical implications

Based on the findings, concrete measures have been suggested to aid Chilean policy makers in implementing evidence-based economic policies, as well as Chilean public trade organizations and private export associations in the fruit sector, in relation to services such as training, strategy consulting and trade network development that they provide to export firms.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing literature by introducing the firm category “host regional” into the matrix of multi-nationality, and empirically verifies its existence among agricultural export firms in emerging economies. Furthermore, it also shows that even when it might result counterintuitive, firms from the agricultural sector share similarities in internationalization strategies with firms from industrial sectors.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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