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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

David Ansong, Chesworth Brittney Renwick, Moses Okumu, Eric Ansong and Cedrick Joseph Wabwire

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial patterns of gender inequality in junior high school enrollment and the educational resource investments associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial patterns of gender inequality in junior high school enrollment and the educational resource investments associated with the spatial trends.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data on 170 districts in Ghana and hot spot analysis based on the Getis-Ord Gi statistic, linear regression, and geographically weighted regression to assess spatial variability in gender parity in junior high school enrollment and its association with resource allocation.

Findings

The results reveal rural-urban and north-south variability in gender parity. Results show that educational resources contribute to gender parity. At the national level, educational expenditure, and the number of classrooms, teachers, and available writing places have the strongest positive associations with girls’ enrollment. These relationships are spatially moderated, such that predominantly rural and Northern districts experience the most substantial benefits of educational investments.

Practical implications

The findings show that strategic allocation of infrastructure, financial, and human resources through local governments holds promise for a more impactful and sustainable educational development of all children, regardless of gender. Besides seeking solutions that address the lack of resources at the national level, there is a need for locally tailored efforts to remove the barriers to equitable distribution of educational resources across gender and socioeconomic groups.

Originality/value

This paper’s use of advanced spatial analysis techniques allows for in-depth examination of gender parity and investments in educational resources, and highlights the spatial nuances in how such investments predict gender disparities in junior high school enrollment. The findings speak to the need for targeted and localized efforts to address gender and geographical disparities in educational opportunities.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Bernardin Senadza

The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and extent of gender and spatial inequalities in educational attainment in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and extent of gender and spatial inequalities in educational attainment in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the education Gini coefficient, computed on the basis of years of schooling of individuals, to assess education inequality in Ghana.

Findings

The paper finds evidence of gender and spatial inequality in education in Ghana. In particular, the three northern regions have lower education attainment as well as higher education Gini coefficients compared to the rest of the country. The paper finds evidence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini. The paper also finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality.

Research limitations/implications

The research finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality but requires an econometric analysis to make inferences regarding causality.

Practical implications

The findings call for the design and implementation of policies not only to address between‐gender and spatial inequities in education in Ghana, but also to tackle within‐gender and within‐spatial inequalities. The positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality implies the need to create greater equity in educational opportunities across the country.

Social implications

The need for changes in attitudes, values and cultural practices that put girls at a disadvantage when it comes to education.

Originality/value

One important and new finding of the paper is the existence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Sameer Kumar, Neha S. Ghildayal and Ronak N. Shah

The fundamental concern of this research study is to learn the quality and efficiency of US healthcare services. It seeks to examine the impact of quality and efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

The fundamental concern of this research study is to learn the quality and efficiency of US healthcare services. It seeks to examine the impact of quality and efficiency on various stakeholders to achieve the best value for each dollar spent for healthcare. The study aims to offer insights on quality reformation efforts, contemporary healthcare policy and a forthcoming change shaped by the Federal healthcare fiscal policy and to recommend the improvement objective by comparing the US healthcare system with those of other developed nations.

Design/methodology/approach

The US healthcare system is examined utilizing various data on recent trends in: spending, budgetary implications, economic indicators, i.e. GDP, inflation, wage and population growth. Process maps, cause and effect diagrams and descriptive data statistics are utilized to understand the various drivers that influence the rising healthcare cost. A proposed cause and effect diagram is presented to offer potential solutions, for significant improvement in US healthcare.

Findings

At present, the US healthcare system is of vital interest to the nation's economy and government policy (spending). The US healthcare system is characterized as the world's most expensive yet least effective compared with other nations. Growing healthcare costs have made millions of citizens vulnerable. Major drivers of the healthcare costs are institutionalized medical practices and reimbursement policies, technology‐induced costs and consumer behavior.

Practical implications

Reviewing many articles, congressional reports, internet websites and related material, a simplified process map of the US healthcare system is presented. The financial process map is also created to further understand the overall process that connects the stakeholders in the healthcare system. Factors impacting healthcare are presented by a cause and effect diagram to further simplify the complexities of healthcare. This tool can also be used as a guide to improve efficiency by removing the “waste” from the system. Trend analyses are presented that display the crucial relationship between economic growth and healthcare spending.

Originality/value

There are many articles and reports published on the US healthcare system. However, very few articles have explored, in a comprehensive manner, the links between the economic indicators and measures of the healthcare system and how to reform this system. As a result of the US healthcare system's complex structure, process map and cause‐effect diagrams are utilized to simplify, address and understand. This study linked top‐level factors, i.e. the societal, government policies, healthcare system comparison, potential reformation solutions and the enormity of the recent trends by presenting serious issues associated with US healthcare.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 25 February 2019

US regional economic disparities.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB242084

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Allan O'Connor, Kai Du and Göran Roos

Developed economies with high-cost environments face industrial transitions from scale-based manufacturing (MAN) to knowledge, technology and intangible asset-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Developed economies with high-cost environments face industrial transitions from scale-based manufacturing (MAN) to knowledge, technology and intangible asset-based sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes in employment and value-adding profiles of transitioning industry sectors in Australia and discuss the implications for policy that influences the intellectual capital (IC) profile of industrial sectors in transition.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach borrowed concepts from the firm-level strategic management literature and applied them to a macro level of industry analysis. In this paper the authors examine the transitions in the Australian economy which, due to a rising cost base, is experiencing a decline in its value chain-oriented MAN sector. The authors contrast four industry sectors with the MAN sector and examine the different value creation models.

Findings

The findings clearly show how the contribution to employment and value added (termed Economic Value Contribution ) of the different sectors vary. The authors extend these findings to a discussion on policy and the dimensions of IC that may have a role to play in facilitating transitions within an economy. The main conclusion is that a more rapid transition and higher value may be created if innovation and entrepreneurship are facilitated by targeted policies in transitioning sector.

Research limitations/implications

This work is based on a single country analysis of selected industry sectors. Further work needs to be done across many more countries to contrast the findings across nations/regions that differ in industrial complexity and to refine the analytical framework to improve construct validity and increase analytical power.

Practical implications

This work has implications for policy-makers facing the challenges of a transitioning economy, whether national or regional. Governments that are hands-on with respect to interventions to salvage and/or extend the life of sectors are at risk of missing opportunities to build the capacities and capabilities of emerging sectors while those governments that are hands-off, deferring to market mechanisms, risk transitions that are too little and/or too late to maintain a national or regional competitiveness.

Originality/value

To the authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate the specific firm-level strategic management perspectives, used in this paper, with the macro-policy level to examine industry sectors with the twin metrics of economic productivity and employment in transitioning economies.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2013

Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld

This chapter provides both an introduction to the volume and a review of literature on health disparities and social determinants.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides both an introduction to the volume and a review of literature on health disparities and social determinants.

Methodology/approach

Literature Review.

Findings

The chapter argues for the importance of greater consideration of social determinants of health disparities. This includes a consideration of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status factors, geographic and place factors, and disparities especially linked to particular diseases.

Originality/value of paper

Reviews the topic of health disparities and social determinants and previews this book.

Details

Social Determinants, Health Disparities and Linkages to Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-588-3

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld

This chapter provides an introduction to Volume 28, The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors. This chapter introduces…

Abstract

This chapter provides an introduction to Volume 28, The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors. This chapter introduces the topic of demographic factors leading to differences and disparities in health and health care by reviewing more recent literature within sociology addressing social factors leading to differences in health and health. This chapter also serves as an introduction to the volume. As such, the chapter explains the organization of the volume and briefly comments on each of the chapters included in the volume.

Details

The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-715-8

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2007

Stephanie L. Ayers, Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld, Sam S. Kim, Jemima A. Frimpong and Patrick A. Rivers

The purpose of this chapter is to examine geographic variations in utilization and need for mental health services. Data for this study were obtained from the 2002…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine geographic variations in utilization and need for mental health services. Data for this study were obtained from the 2002 National Survey of American Families. The total sample size was 23,327 adults of aged 18 years and older. Both logistic and linear regression were used to test the possibility of geographical variations. Disparities were found among the 13 U.S. states examined in this study. Results also showed that the percentage of African Americans, state mental health budgets, and mean length of stay in psychiatric hospitals in the state are important predictors of variations in mental health utilization and need variables. These findings suggest that although individual sociodemographic characteristics are important in examining mental health utilization, state characteristics (especially percentage of African Americans, state mental health laws, and mean length of stay in psychiatric hospitals) are also important predictors of variation in utilization of mental health services.

Details

Inequalities and Disparities in Health Care and Health: Concerns of Patients, Providers and Insurers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1474-4

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Laura Senier, Matthew Kearney and Jason Orne

This mixed-methods study reports on an outreach clinics program designed to deliver genetic services to medically underserved communities in Wisconsin.

Abstract

Purpose

This mixed-methods study reports on an outreach clinics program designed to deliver genetic services to medically underserved communities in Wisconsin.

Methodology/approach

We show the geographic distribution, funding patterns, and utilization trends for outreach clinics over a 20-year period. Interviews with program planners and outreach clinic staff show how external and internal constraints limited the program’s capacity. We compare clinic operations to the conceptual models guiding program design.

Findings

Our findings show that state health officials had to scale back financial support for outreach clinic activities while healthcare providers faced increasing pressure from administrators to reduce investments in charity care. These external and internal constraints led to a decline in the overall number of patients served. We also find that redistribution of clinics to the Milwaukee area increased utilization among Hispanics but not among African-Americans. Our interviews suggest that these patterns may be a function of shortcomings embedded in the planning models.

Research/Policy Implications

Planning models have three shortcomings. First, they do not identify the mitigation of health disparities as a specific goal. Second, they fail to acknowledge that partners face escalating profit-seeking mandates that may limit their capacity to provide charity services. Finally, they underemphasize the importance of seeking trusted partners, especially in working with communities that have been historically marginalized.

Originality/Value

There has been little discussion about equitably leveraging genetic advances that improve healthcare quality and efficacy. The role of State Health Agencies in mitigating disparities in access to genetic services has been largely ignored in the sociological literature.

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Lauren D. Arnold and Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international levels.

Design/methodology/approach – The literature, cervical cancer prevention guidelines, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention resources were culled to aggregate information on epidemiology, racial/ethnic disparities, and knowledge and attitudes related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Original data supplement information about HPV and HPV vaccination knowledge and attitudes.

Findings – Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of female death worldwide, with substantial racial/ethnic and geographic disparities. In the United States, African American and Hispanic women suffer disproportionate cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Globally, the greatest burden of cervical cancer (and HPV infection) is shouldered by developing regions. Prevention efforts, such as HPV vaccination and adaption of screening programs to resource-poor areas, have the potential to reduce such disparities, but cultural context is critical to successful development and implementation of such interventions.

Research limitations/implications – As this is not a systematic review, but rather a viewpoint on issues related to disparities in cervical cancer, the literature review is not exhaustive.

Practical implications – This chapter provides a context for examining cervical cancer disparities domestically and globally and serves as a starting point for formulating future research.

Originality – This perspective on HPV and cervical cancer presents disparities both within the United States and worldwide. The chapter supplements the literature with new data that provide additional insight into knowledge and attitudes about these health issues.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

Keywords

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