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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Geoff Ryan, Lyle M. Spencer and Urs Bernhard

The purpose of this paper is to report data empirically linking competencies of individual leaders to business profitability and demonstrate that competencies are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report data empirically linking competencies of individual leaders to business profitability and demonstrate that competencies are cross‐culturally valid.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants in the initial competency study were 15 business unit managers identified as high performing. Data were collected using Critical Incident Interviews that were systematically coded using thematic analysis to identify the presence of competencies. Competencies identified were then adapted into a behaviourally‐based questionnaire used in a follow‐up validation study. Participants in the validation study (n=70) were managers from North America and two European countries who were participants in a management development program. Boss ratings of competencies were then correlated with business unit profitability.

Findings

A set of competencies was identified as predictive of unit profit growth in managers in both North America and the European Union. Subsequent regression analysis showed that 17 per cent of the variance in business unit profitability could be accounted for by four competencies, specifically team leadership, developing others, achievement orientation, and impact and influence. Cross‐cultural validity was demonstrated to the degree that similar competencies predicted performance in both North America and the European Union as evidenced by the correlation between boss rating of subordinate competencies and profit growth.

Research limitations/implications

The initial study using Critical Incident Interviews was conducted with a small sample size and did not employ a comparison group of average performers.

Practical implications

Initial competency research using empirical methods should be used to help focus competency models used for selection, feedback, training, and performance management.

Originality/value

The study is one of the few published studies that link competencies to business unit profitability. The paper demonstrates that competencies have a degree of cross‐cultural validity.

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Geoff Ryan, Robert J. Emmerling and Lyle M. Spencer

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive competencies in the workplace. Second, using data from two different European samples, to demonstrate the methods for validating competency models for applied use. Third, to discuss the impact of role demands and culture on the manifestation of competencies most predictive of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic design used in both studies is to compare data from outstanding performers against data from typical or average performers in order to determine competencies which predict performance. The data presented here are based on operant assessment of competencies using critical incident interviews, which are then systematically coded using thematic analysis to yield behavioural evidence of specific competencies.

Findings

The results indicate that, while some competencies such as achievement orientation and team leadership are consistently linked to performance in both studies, the correlation of other specific competencies with performance varies among the samples. Moreover, the relative importance of specific competencies in terms of the amount of variance in performance explained also varies across the two samples.

Research limitations/implications

The criterion measures available, i.e. client ratings of performance, did not provide the continuous objective performance data that are generally considered preferable so as to provide a clearer picture of the value added by superior performance. A further limitation was that there was no opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the various initiatives which were put in place to improve managers' competencies after their initial assessment.

Originality/value

This is one of the few articles that explore the validity of competencies within the European Union across different organizations using a common competency framework and methodology. Both studies were originally initiated as applied consulting projects and the findings of the research applied to human resource practices within each organization. Although competencies are ubiquitous in today's global workplace, the number of published studies with data to support the validity of competency‐modelling techniques has been limited. The current research adds to the growing literature in this area and adds to one's confidence in the ability of emotional, social and cognitive competencies to predict performance in a variety of settings and cultures.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Geoff Lightfoot and Simon Lilley

The purpose of this paper is to subject the short lived “Policy Analysis Market” (PAM) – “a Pentagon betting market on terror attacks” – and media and academic reactions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to subject the short lived “Policy Analysis Market” (PAM) – “a Pentagon betting market on terror attacks” – and media and academic reactions to it, to some critical analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper engages sustained invocation of the relationship between simulation and representation, for the story of the Policy Analysis Market (PAM) and its demise is replete with the tension between the two. It interrogates a range of accounts of the (un)timely demise of PAM, from the fearful senators and the moralistic media who subsumed and buttressed their position to the market evangelists for whom the failure of this particular market was merely proof of the veracity of markets elsewhere.

Findings

It is found that, inter alia, PAM was not really market‐like enough and, indeed, that it duplicated in impoverished form already existing markets that pertain to its objects of interest; that it was too much a market, given that its “goods” are seemingly inappropriate for market trade; and that it exposed too much of the truth of the actual operation of existing markets via the difficulties it confronted with regard to the possibility of insider dealing.

Originality/value

By contextualising PAM within the so‐called war on terror of which it was part, we see in the tension between representation and simulation, tension between a singular and a manifold reality; a set of tensions which make clear the extent of the gap that must exist between cause and effect, truth and prediction. The paper concludes by joining the celebration of PAM's demise whilst yearning for a similar fate to befall the other monologues that brought it to silence.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Esme Franken and Geoff Plimmer

Leadership matters in public contexts. It influences employee development and, in turn, the effective delivery of public services. Harmful leadership limits the fulfilment…

Abstract

Purpose

Leadership matters in public contexts. It influences employee development and, in turn, the effective delivery of public services. Harmful leadership limits the fulfilment of both these requirements. Although there are many studies of public leadership, few explore aspects of poor leadership focusing on leading people, in the unique public sector context. The purpose of this paper is to explore the public sector environment as one that can enable harmful leadership, and identifies what those aspects of harmful behaviours are. In particular, it focuses on common, day-to-day forms of harmful mediocre leadership rather than more dramatic, but rarer, forms of destructive or toxic leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted over three phases. In study one (N=10) interviews using the critical incident technique identified harmful behaviours. Study two (N=10) identified perceived causal processes and outcomes of these processes. Study three was a validation check using two focus groups (n=7) and two further interviews (n=6).

Findings

Four dimensions of harmful behaviour were found: micromanagement, managing up but not down, low social and career support and reactive leadership. Several pathways to harm were found, including lessened employee confidence, motivation, collaboration, learning and development.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited by a small sample and data collected in one public sector system. But its implications are still meaningful. The research identified some ways that harmful leadership can occur, that is missed in existing studies of harmful leadership, which tend to focus on more toxic forms of harm. The role of NPM and other reforms as important shapers of current leadership behaviours are also discussed.

Practical implications

To address these behaviours further investment in leadership development, selection and performance management is recommended.

Social implications

Social implications include the hindering of effective service delivery and limited ability to deal with increasingly dynamic and complicated problem.

Originality/value

Public sector leadership studies are often rose tinted, or describe what should be. Instead, this paper describes what sometimes is, in terms of day-to-day mediocre but harmful leadership.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Yllka Azemi, Wilson Ozuem and Geoff Lancaster

Despite scholarly effort to understand customers’ recovery evaluation, little progress is evident in deciphering how customers develop online failure/recovery perception…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite scholarly effort to understand customers’ recovery evaluation, little progress is evident in deciphering how customers develop online failure/recovery perception. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Social constructivism was the epistemic choice for this study. This approach is holistic and offers a comprehensive understanding of each side of the phenomena. This provided social scientific descriptions of people and their cultural bases and built on, and articulated what was implicit in interpretations of their views.

Findings

Online banking customer groups were identified as: exigent customers, solutionist customers and impulsive customers. Customers’ position in each group determined failure perception, recovery expectation and evaluation, and post-recovery behaviour. Comparisons were observed and discussed in relation to Albania and Kosovo. It was suggested that banks should expand their presence in social media platforms and offer a means to manage online customer communication and spread of online WOM.

Research limitations/implications

For exigent customers, the failure/recovery responsibility is embedded within the provider. This explains their high sensitivity and criteria to define a failure.

Practical implications

Online banking customers’ request of a satisfactory recovery experience included: customer notifications, customer behaviour, customer determination, and the mediator of request. 10;Providers should examine customer failure/recovery experiences in cooperation with other banks which should lead to a higher order understanding of customer withdrawal and disengagement activities.

Social implications

Post-recovery behaviour is linked to the decline of online banking usage, switching to new providers, and the spread of negative online and off-line word-of-mouth.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study on online service failure and recovery strategy to provide information on customers’ unique preferences and expectations in the recovery process. Online customers are organised into a threefold customer typology, and explanation for the providers’ role in the online customer failure-recovery perception construct is presented.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Paul Williams, Geoff Soutar, Nicholas Jeremy Ashill and Earl Naumann

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of customer value, and their respective relationships with customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions, between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of customer value, and their respective relationships with customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions, between two culturally distinct groups of adventure tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a descriptive design and compared data from 301 Japanese and Western adventure tourists who experienced the same adventure tour. The respondents were split into two groups, and a path modeling approach was used to examine similarities and differences.

Findings

The results indicated that Japanese tourists attached more importance to emotional value and novelty value. Western tourists, however, attached relatively more importance to the utilitarian dimension of price value for money.

Practical implications

The main implication of this study is that tourism operators should account for differences in value perceptions between Japanese and Western tourists when planning tour operations, training tour guides, and managing tour itineraries. Operators should also consider customizing their tour products to fit the specific needs of these different cultural groups. This reinforces the adaptation argument when marketing tourism to international consumers.

Originality/value

This study highlights that different value drivers affect the satisfaction and behavioral intentions of Japanese tourists, relative to Western tourists. The need for adaptation of tourism products toward certain international tourists is thus necessary. The research also reinforces the importance of conceptualizing and measuring customer value as a multidimensional construct in an international adventure tourism context.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1984

British Aerospace announces the appointment of Mr. Donald (Don) McClen as Corporate Executive Public Affairs with effect from August 27, 1984, in succession to Mr. David…

Abstract

British Aerospace announces the appointment of Mr. Donald (Don) McClen as Corporate Executive Public Affairs with effect from August 27, 1984, in succession to Mr. David Bainbridge.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 56 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Abstract

Subject area

Marketing.

Study level/applicability

This case can be used in a principles of marketing course, at Introductory, Executive or MBA level, it is particularly suitable as a case on promotions policy as one of the 4-P's, to illustrate the role of marketing communications as part of an integrated marketing strategy, or to illustrate the building of a service brand.

Case overview

The case illustrates a number of practical marketing issues: the marketing challenges of launching a budget airline: gaining high visibility and awareness with a relatively low share of voice; the relationship between an organisation and its advertising agency; the requirement to maintain a consistent marketing strategy over time, but to adapt the execution as market dynamics impact the consumer. Given the dynamics of most industries, kulula.com cannot afford to be complacent, as new entrants are always on the horizon. The dilemma facing Gidon Novick and his team is to rethink the sustainability of its current strategy, how to grow and protect its position, as well as the relationship with its advertising agency and its communication strategy – is a more relevant campaign or a new agency required to keep the marketing communications interesting and current?

Expected learning outcomes

The expected learning outcomes are: to analyse the success of communications campaigns; to explore the issue of client/agency relationships; to understand brand building strategies, how to create a distinctive position, and how to build a services brand; To understand the key success factors for a low-fare niche positioning strategy, and to examine the sustainability of this low-fare strategy; and to identify some product line extension opportunities for kulula.com.

Supplementary materials

Teaching note.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Sharron O'Neill, Geoff McDonald and Craig Michael Deegan

The purpose of this paper is to seek to extend the work of Robson (1991, 1992) by exploring the accounting implications of the way in which subsets of non-financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to extend the work of Robson (1991, 1992) by exploring the accounting implications of the way in which subsets of non-financial accounting numbers are constructed. In particular, the study investigates whether the different procedures for organising subsets of a set of accounting data may lead to different conclusions about (the same) reality.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis focuses on the procedures by which organisations translate work-related injury outcomes to accounting numbers. First, existing procedures are problematised within their institutional context. This highlights complementary elements of translation and neo-institutional theory that together explain how institutional factors might operate to constrain the problematising process. An empirical analysis of workers’ compensation data covering a ten year period is then conducted to calculate and contrast performance using two competing logics of accounting for injury.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that different representations of reality may result not only from accounting choices as to “what” is measured, but also from accounting choices as to “how subsets of measured data are organised”. Specifically, different ways of organising injury data into subsets led to different representations of the reality of overall injury performance. The evidence further suggests taken-for-granted assumptions and institutionalised practices may prevent adequate problematisation of the underpinning logic that guides the procedures for organising translations of work-related injury and illness to accounting numbers.

Practical implications

The results suggest the existing logic of accounting for injury fails to recognise the financial or non-financial complexity of non-fatal injury outcomes. “Lost time injury” measures are revealed as neither valid nor reliable measures of injury (or safety) and therefore inappropriate for informing the occupational health and safety (OHS) decisions of managers, boards and external stakeholders. These findings reveal an urgent need for change in injury accounting practice and, in turn, raise serious concerns about the increasingly institutionalised global template for external disclosure of OHS performance information.

Originality/value

This paper takes a novel look at the construction of social performance measures and suggests further attention to the construction of accounting subsets is warranted. In demonstrating serious problems in accounting logic that underpin existing, and deeply institutionalised, measurement and reporting practices, the findings reinforce the need to routinely re-problematise accounting practices. Failure to critically review those accounting translations that underpin decision-making may prove a fatal mistake.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Peter Ryan

Abstract

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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