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As a sustainability initiative with the backing of civil society, business, or government interests, urban agriculture can drive green gentrification even when advocates…
As a sustainability initiative with the backing of civil society, business, or government interests, urban agriculture can drive green gentrification even when advocates of these initiatives have good intentions and are aware of their exclusionary potential for urban farmers and residents. I investigate this more general pattern with the case of how urban agriculture became used for green gentrification in Denver, Colorado. This is a city with many urban farmers that gained access to land after the Great Recession but faced the contradiction of being a force for displacement and at risk of displacement as the city adopted new sustainability and food system goals, the housing market recovered, and green gentrification spread. I argue that to understand this outcome, it is necessary to explain how political economy and cultural forces create neighborhood disinvestment and economic marginalization and compel the entrance of urban agriculture initiatives due to their low-profit mode of production and potential economic, environmental, and social benefits. Central to how urban agriculture initiatives contribute to green gentrification is the process of revalorization, which is how green growth machines repurpose such initiatives by drawing on their cultural cachet to exploit rent gaps. I conclude with a set of hypotheses to help other scholars test the conditions under which urban agriculture is more or less likely to contribute to green gentrification. Doing so may help nuance convictions about the benefits of urban agriculture within the context of entrenched inequalities in rapidly changing cities.
This chapter brings new knowledge on the effects of transformation in metropolitan and urban ruralities, as well as focus on social sustainability in these localities. The…
This chapter brings new knowledge on the effects of transformation in metropolitan and urban ruralities, as well as focus on social sustainability in these localities. The case study Sundom, Vaasa, Finland, highlights areas under pressure of transformation. ‘Metropolitan ruralities’ is used here as an umbrella concept, subdivided into metropolitan ruralities and smaller (non-metropolitan) urban ruralities. Qualitative and quantitative research methods are combined in a triangular study. An octagon figure (Fig. 4), including the main variables of the triangular study, is configured, to visualize different variables as a whole. The statistical material is more limited in urban ruralities – for example fewer property trades, less inhabitants and fewer voters – which make these case studies more vulnerable for the impact of extremes. The core of the chapter is to study how and if current global trends in metropolitan ruralities are visible in localities further down the urban scale. A stricter rural gentrification is expected in metropolitan ruralities than in urban ruralities, as the Sundom case exemplifies transformation with mild gentrification. Both metropolitan and urban ruralities are considered ‘breeding grounds’ for new rurban identities, with variations on an urban-rural scale. Metropolitan ruralities are expected to attract more exurbanite migrants, and urban ruralities attract more ‘exruralite’ migrants. This chapter also outlines some practical and social implications, argues for strengthening social sustainability in metropolitan ruralities and puts some much needed focus on transformation in metropolitan as well as non-metropolitan urban ruralities.
Based on a case study of the Logan Renewal Initiative (LRI) in Queensland Australia, this chapter examines the competing aims bound up in programmes of urban renewal and…
Based on a case study of the Logan Renewal Initiative (LRI) in Queensland Australia, this chapter examines the competing aims bound up in programmes of urban renewal and the way different stakeholder groups advocate for one component of the programme while seeking to prevent another.
A qualitative case study approach is used based on interview and documentary material to elicit the competing views and opinions of local residents, state and local governments, housing providers and other stakeholders around a renewal programme.
It is found that there are two competing agendas bound up within the LRI, with gentrification at the heart of each. One focuses on the virtues of the social housing reform agenda, but sees gentrification as an unintended and undesirable outcome that needs to be carefully managed. The other is a place-improvement ambition that sees gentrification as an effective policy mechanism, but one that will be undermined by any increases in the stock of social and affordable housing.
The chapter emphasizes that programmes of renewal are rarely coherent policy tools, but are subject to change, contestation and negotiation as stakeholders compete to impose their own desired outcomes. In the case of the LRI, both outcomes will likely result in the marginalization of low-income groups unless their needs are placed at the forefront of its design.
The chapter engages critically with the widely held view that urban renewal is a means of gentrifying local neighbourhoods by showing how local conditions and circumstances render the relationship between renewal and gentrification far more complex that generally conceived.
This study aims to measure the occurrence of gentrification and to relate gentrification with housing values.
The authors have used Getis-Ord statistics to identify and quantify gentrification in different residential areas in a case study of Stockholm, Sweden. Gentrification will be measured in two dimensions, namely, income and population. In step two, this measure is included in a traditional hedonic pricing model where the intention is to explain future housing prices.
The results indicate that the parameter estimate is statistically significant, suggesting that gentrification contributes to higher housing values in gentrified areas and near gentrified neighbourhoods. This latter possible spillover effect of house prices due to gentrification by income and population was similar in both the hedonic price and treatment effect models. According to the hedonic price model, proximity to the gentrified area increases housing value by around 6%–8%. The spillover effect on price distribution seems to be consistent and stable in gentrified areas.
A few studies estimate the effect of gentrification on property values. Those studies focussed on analysing the impacts of gentrification in higher rents and increasing house prices within the gentrifying areas, not gentrification on property prices in neighbouring areas. Hence, one of the paper’s contributions is to bridge the gap in previous studies by measuring gentrification’s impact on neighbouring housing prices.
This study aims to develop a measurement scale of tourism-led rural gentrification from the perspective of rural residents.
The procedure for developing the measurement scale included a thorough review of related literature on tourism-led rural gentrification and multiple stages of qualitative and quantitative investigations. A total of 1,080 rural residents in Huzhou and Huangshan participated in the project. The semi-structured interviews and questionnaire were applied to collect the data. This study analyzed the data with the methodologies of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
The measurement scale developed in this study included seven dimensions: Accelerated Ecological Awareness, Individual Behavior, Rural Economic Development, Enhanced Living Standards, Talents and Demographic Changes, Human and Cultural Shift and Cohesive Community.
This measurement scale was developed and validated in China and may not be relevant in other contexts. The scale focuses on tourism-led rural gentrification only from the perspective of rural residents. The findings broaden the knowledge on tourism-led rural gentrification by researching the topic from the point of view of rural residents.
For policymakers and tourism enterprises, this study provides a valuable index for a full understanding of tourism-led rural gentrification. For investors, the research offers insights for priority investments to advance tourism development in rural regions.
This study is one of the few attempts to empirically measure tourism-led rural gentrification. The results improve on the knowledge about tourism-led rural gentrification in China.
开发和验证旅游引导的乡村绅士化测量量表主要包含两方面的工作：旅游引导的乡村绅士化相关文献梳理; 多阶段的定量和定性研究。本研究共邀请1080位研究对象参与调研, 并通过深度半结构访谈和调查问卷收集数据, 使用EFA、CFA和SEM等研究方法研究结果。
本研究基于中国背景开发和验证了旅游引导的乡村绅士化测量量表, 未验证该量表在其他国家或地区的普适性, 且仅从居民视角展开研究。我们的研究结果丰富了旅游引导的乡村绅士化内容。
对于政策制定者和旅游企业来说, 本研究为他们充分了解旅游引导的乡村绅士化提供了参考; 对投资者来说, 本研究为投资者投资提供了有价值的借鉴和参考。
旅游引导的乡村绅士化 居民感知 量表开发 量表验证
Motivo de investigación
El objetivo principal del presente estudio es desarrollar y validar una escala de medición de gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo desde la perspectiva de los residentes.
Diseño y metodología de investigación
El desarrollo y la validación de la presente escala de medición consistió en dos tareas principales: un examen de la literatura relacionada con la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo; y múltiples etapas de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Para este estudio, se invitó a un total de 1080 sujetos para participar de esta investigación, los datos se obtuvieron mediante entrevistas y cuestionarios semiestructurados en profundidad, y los resultados se han analizado mediante EFA, CFA y SEM.
Conclusiones de la investigación
La escala de medición desarrollada y validada en este estudio consta de 7 dimensiones: percepción de alfabetismo civilizacional, percepción de desarrollo económico, percepción de nivel de vida, percepción de entorno de desarrollo, percepción de costumbres sociales, percepción de asentamiento humano y percepción de orden comunitario.
Limitaciones/significado de la investigación
Este estudio desarrolló y validó la escala de medición basada en un contexto chino, pero no se pudo generalizar la escala de medición en otros países o regiones. Esta investigación solo analiza el fenómeno de gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo desde la perspectiva de los residentes. Nuestros resultados contribuyen a mejorar el contenido de la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo.
Para los responsables políticos y las empresas de turismo, la presente investigación constituye una referencia para que comprendan plenamente la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo; para los inversores, constituye una valiosa referencia de inversión.
Este estudio es un importante intento para medir la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo y contribuye a enriquecer la comprensión de la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo de China.
Gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo, Percepción de los residents, Desarrollo de la escala, Validación de la escala
Tipo de papel
Trabajo de investigación
The purpose of this paper is to establish measurable factors that can be used as early indicators of which neighborhoods are most likely to undergo a process of…
The purpose of this paper is to establish measurable factors that can be used as early indicators of which neighborhoods are most likely to undergo a process of gentrification in a reasonably near future.
Using 1990 data on key demographic variables for 128 neighborhoods in Stockholm, Sweden a model that allows both for testing of spatial clustering and for spatial spillovers between neighborhoods is estimated. It is hypothesized not only that gentrification depends on inter-neighborhood characteristics but also that gentrified neighborhoods will cluster and preferably be located in proximity to existing high income neighborhoods.
The findings confirm the stated hypotheses. Among the results, it is shown that neighborhoods that gentrified between 1990 and 2012 were more likely to have been poor in 1990 and located closer to the CBD, they were also more likely to be close to neighborhoods with lower proportions of low income residents. It is also found that gentrified neighborhoods tend to cluster over space.
Much of the previous literature on gentrification has concerned the actual driving forces behind gentrifying neighborhoods. This paper is more concerned with indicators that can be used to spot neighborhoods that are likely to undergo a gentrification process in the future. Such information can be valuable for real estate developers in the private sector, as it may lead to more successful investments. It may also be useful for city developers at the municipal organization.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse urban transformation as a tourism resource. Tourism is undeniably a powerful motor for urban transformation but in return, urban…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse urban transformation as a tourism resource. Tourism is undeniably a powerful motor for urban transformation but in return, urban transformation can represent a resource for actors related to tourism. More precisely this paper focuses on one major transformation of modern cities: gentrification.
The central hypothesis of this paper is that gentrification accompanies tourism, but that gentrification itself may also become an object of the tourist gaze. The paper focuses on local guides and small touristic entrepreneurs in order to identify the tensions that might arise. The presentation of two guided tours – “Subculture Brixton Nightlife Tour” and “Where Brooklyn At?” – will enable us to explore how the gentrification of Brixton (London) and Brooklyn (New York) may be used as a tourism resource for local private entrepreneurs.
Results presented here are based on ethnographic methods such as observation as well as content analysis and semi-directive interviews. Mobilising the historical concept of “slumming”, this paper proposes an extended conceptual framework, “neo-slumming”, to analyse evolving tourism practices in modern cities, practices that are considered here as tourism’s new frontiers.
However, as tourism transforms cities, the process itself is now of interest to tourists and thus becomes a resource for sector businesses (Naef, 2018). Yet studies about the touristification of urban transformation are still quite rare. This analysis aims to fill this gap by looking at the way a process, such as some spectacular, rapid or radical transformation of the urban fabric, can become a touristic resource associated with specific narratives and representations. In this context, the tourist gaze (Urry, 2002) is directed on a resource characterised by its ongoing change.
This study compared the gentrification processes in Cihangir and Tarlabasi. The dynamics of the gentrification process in Cihangir is compared with the vastly different…
This study compared the gentrification processes in Cihangir and Tarlabasi. The dynamics of the gentrification process in Cihangir is compared with the vastly different gentrification process in Tarlabasi. Interpretations of gentrification are also included in this paper.
The study analyzed the dynamics of the gentrification process in Cihangir, Istanbul (Turkey) to determine the extent of change during the process. Characterization of the Cihangir neighborhood, which distinguishes Cihangir from other gentrified urban areas, is another aspect of this study. The transformation of Cihangir is currently underway; it involves the revolution and renovation of land and buildings, which is known as gentrification. The gentrification process in Cihangir is affected by socio-economic and socio-cultural transformations. This paper examines gentrification in the Cihangir neighborhood, which has occurred spontaneously and supports the perpetuation of social diversity, which occurs in many urban areas. Although Istanbul’s Tarlabasi region exhibits geophysical characteristics that resemble the geophysical characteristics of Cihangir, Tarlabasi is affected by a completely different gentrification process, which is known as planned gentrification.
In the context of this study, scholars question whether gentrification is “erasing the social geography of urban land and unique architectural pattern,” or if gentrification represents “the upgrading and renaissance of the urban land.” (Smith, 1996)
Previous research has shown that gentrification has mixed effects on residents of the community. This paper focuses on the differential implications of gentrification for…
Previous research has shown that gentrification has mixed effects on residents of the community. This paper focuses on the differential implications of gentrification for youth in the gentrifying area and the surrounding neighborhoods.
Interviews were conducted among youth aged 11–16 and their parents in Asbury Park, a shore community in New Jersey that is currently experiencing tourism-related redevelopment.
Respondents describe various ways that gentrification creates visible disparities between neighborhoods. Uneven spatial investment leads youth and their parents to perceive their immediate, disinvested residential surroundings as more dangerous and violent than invested spaces near the ocean. Displacement causes neighborhood social networks of remaining residents to dissolve and erodes the social fabric of the community. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of new amenities limits residents’ access to new leisure opportunities nearby.
Future studies could compare similarly sized communities experiencing gentrification specific to tourism, as well as communities experiencing different types of redevelopment. Future studies should also seek to include a more representative sample of Latino residents.
This study contributes to our understanding of how children and youth experience gentrification. These findings should be of interest to policymakers, developers, and those working directly with youth, including teachers and social workers.
These findings point to how youth experience gentrification differently according to their proximity or distance from invested areas. This should influence measures to improve service provision and access.
This paper contributes to the existing literature on experiences of individuals living in gentrifying spaces by focusing on children whose families remain in the community.
The Karmeliterviertel is an inner-city neighborhood in Vienna, which underwent a significant revitalization and renewal. Since the opinions of Viennese urban researchers…
The Karmeliterviertel is an inner-city neighborhood in Vienna, which underwent a significant revitalization and renewal. Since the opinions of Viennese urban researchers differ to a large extent whether gentrification occurs in Vienna at all, this chapter examines the question, whether the revitalization of the Karmeliterviertel can be defined as ‘gentrification.’ This question is elaborated in the context of Vienna's overall ‘soft urban renewal’ strategy. Despite the fact that direct displacement of households from the Karmeliterviertel was prevented by the mechanisms of Vienna's strict tenancy law, also the local coordination office played a certain role. As higher-status groups moved in the neighborhood, the infrastructure and the amenities changed and were adjusted to their demands. This cultural redefinition resulted in the replacement of restaurants, cafes, and bars, which served the needs of longtime residents and low-income groups. The revitalization of the Karmeliterviertel thus has to be termed ‘gentrification,’ as their social spaces were displaced and as they are less visible in the neighborhood. This form of displacement develops a similar dynamic as direct displacement, when social relations, bonds, and networks, which provide options, coping strategies, and sources of a place-based identity, are dissolved. As gentrification results in homogeneity, the main challenge for a city is to maintain spaces of different milieus and thus to preserve authentic places, characterized by heterogeneity and urbanity.