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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Göran Goldkuhl

The purpose of this paper is to present a new theoretical model (the generic regulation model (GRM)) which is aimed for e‐government development. There is a need for such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new theoretical model (the generic regulation model (GRM)) which is aimed for e‐government development. There is a need for such a generic model in order to describe and analyse the regulation that occurs in the interaction between governmental agencies and citizens.

Design/methodology/approach

This new model has evolved through an action research project/practical inquiry in e‐government. The project area was personal assistance to disabled persons. The practical inquiry has comprised generation and application of the GRM model (as a kind of empirical grounding) and also some initial theoretical grounding.

Findings

In the e‐government project there was a need to conceptualize the relations between different governmental agencies and clients. As a response to this need a generic model and a corresponding situational model were developed. The generic model consists of three layers: legislation as general regulation; application of legislation for issuing decisions ( = individual rules), i.e. specific regulation; and application of general and individual rules in regulated practices. The paper also gives an epistemological account of the evolution of the new GRM model. GRM is considered to be a practical theory and it has evolved through a design‐oriented practical inquiry.

Originality/value

The paper presents this new GRM. The GRM model should be adequate to apply in many e‐government situations, since there are often regulation issues at stake. The GRM model should be used in the design and evaluation of e‐government applications.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Yvonne Haas

Global trends like digitalization and verticalization increase the complexity within the retail industry and decrease the explanatory power of prevailing retail concepts…

Abstract

Purpose

Global trends like digitalization and verticalization increase the complexity within the retail industry and decrease the explanatory power of prevailing retail concepts. This paper responds to the call for new ways of understanding retailers’ business activities. The purpose of this paper is to structure and stimulate the emerging conceptual debate about retail business models (RBM) by developing a literature-based and empirically-substantiated generic retail business model framework (generic RBM).

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a systematic literature review and a qualitative study with 16 expert interviews in the German retail industry.

Findings

The paper identifies six core elements and respective sub-elements of a generic RBM. Contrasting the literature with empirical data, it confirms some common elements (e.g. “value proposition”) but invalidates others (e.g. “organization” or “governance”). The empirical findings add retail specifics like “horizontal integration,” “vertical integration” and “partners and networks” as core elements of a generic RBM.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to develop a generic RBM based on a systematic literature review and an empirical study across retailers. The resulting generic RBM can be used as a retail concept for systemizing and typifying the appearances of retailers in retailing theory. It can also be used for building, analyzing and comparing RBMs in retailing practice. The paper further provides a guideline for generic business model design with a hybrid approach based on literature and qualitative data.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Maurice Yolles and Gerhard Fink

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and problematic issues requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis. Using arguments of…

Abstract

Purpose

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and problematic issues requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis. Using arguments of anticipation as an imperative for inquiry, the purpose of this paper is to introduce generic modelling for living systems theory, and assigns the number of generic constructs to orders of simplex modelling. An nth simplex order rests in an nth order simplex cybernetic space. A general modelling theory of higher orders of simplexity is given, where each higher order responds to every generic construct involved, the properties of which determining the rules of the complex system being that is represented. Higher orders of simplexity also explain greater degrees of complexity relatively simply, and give rise to the development of new paradigms that are better able to explain perceived complex phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

This is Part 3 of three linked papers. Using principles that arise from Schwarz’s living systems set within a framework provided by cultural agency theory, and with a rationale provided by Rosen’s and Dubois’ concepts of anticipation, the papers develop a general modelling theory of simplex orders. They show that with the development of new higher orders, paradigm shifts can occur that become responsible for new ways of seeing and resolving stubborn problematic issues. Part 1 established the fundamentals for a theory of modelling associated with cybernetic orders. Using this, in this Part 2 the authors established the principles of cybernetic orders using simplex modelling. This included a general theory of generic modelling. In this Part 3 the authors extend this, developing a fourth order simplex model, and exploring the potential for higher orders using recursive techniques through cultural agency theory. The authors also explore various forms of emergence.

Findings

Cultural agency theory can be used to generate higher simplex through principles of recursion, and hence to create a potential for the generation of families of new paradigms. The idea of conceptual emergence is also tied to the rise of new paradigms.

Research limitations/implications

The use of higher order simplex models to represent complex situations provides the ability to condense explanation concerning the development of particular system behaviours, and hence simplify the way in which the authors analyse, diagnose and anticipate behaviour in complex situations. Illustration is also given showing how the theory can explain the emergence of new paradigms.

Practical implications

Cultural agency can be used to structure problem issues that may otherwise be problematic, within both a top-down and bottom-up approach. It may also be used to assist in establishing behavioural anticipation given an appropriate modelling approach. It may also be used to improve and compress explanation of complex situations.

Originality/value

A new theory of simplex orders arises from the new concept of generic modelling, illustrating cybernetic order. This permits the possibility of improved analysis and diagnosis of problematic situations belonging to complex situations through the use of higher order simplex models, and facilitates improvement in behavioural anticipation.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Maurice Yolles and Gerhard Fink

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and problematic issues requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis. Using arguments of…

Abstract

Purpose

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and problematic issues requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis. Using arguments of anticipation as an imperative for inquiry, the purpose of this paper is to introduce generic modelling for living systems theory, and assign the number of generic constructs to orders of simplex modelling. An nth simplex order rests in an nth order simplex cybernetic space. A general modelling theory of higher orders of simplexity is given, where each higher order responds to every generic construct involved, the properties of which determining the rules of the complex system being that is represented. Higher orders of simplexity also explain greater degrees of complexity relatively simply, and give rise to the development of new paradigms that are better able to explain perceived complex phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

This is part 2 of three linked papers. Using principles that arise from Schwarz’s living systems set within a framework provided by cultural agency theory, and with a rationale provided by Rosen’s and Dubois’ concepts of anticipation, the papers develop a general modelling theory of simplex orders. They show that with the development of new higher orders, paradigm shifts can occur that become responsible for new ways of seeing and resolving stubborn problematic issues. Part 1 established the fundamentals for a theory of modelling associated with cybernetic orders. Using this, in this part 2 the authors establish the principles of cybernetic orders using simplex modelling. This will include a general theory of generic modelling. In part 3 the authors shall extend this, developing a fourth-order simplex model, and exploring the potential for higher orders using recursive techniques through cultural agency theory.

Findings

Cultural agency theory can be used to generate higher simplex through principles of recursion, and hence to create a potential for the generation of families of new paradigms. The idea of conceptual emergence is also tied to the rise of new paradigms.

Research limitations/implications

The use of higher order simplex models to represent complex situations provides the ability to condense explanation concerning the development of particular system behaviours, and hence simplify the way in which the authors analyse, diagnose and anticipate behaviour in complex situations. Illustration is also given showing how the theory can explain the emergence of new paradigms.

Practical implications

Cultural agency can be used to structure problem issues that may otherwise be problematic, within both a top-down and bottom up approach. It may also be used to assist in establishing behavioural anticipation given an appropriate modelling approach. It may also be used to improve and compress explanation of complex situations.

Originality/value

A new theory of simplex orders arises from the new concept of generic modelling, illustrating cybernetic order. This permits the possibility of improved analysis and diagnosis of problematic situations belonging to complex situations through the use of higher order simplex models, and facilitates improvement in behavioural anticipation.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Maurice Yolles and Gerhard Fink

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and the problematic issues that they can generate requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis…

Abstract

Purpose

Anticipating behaviour and responding to the needs of complexity and the problematic issues that they can generate requires modelling to facilitate analysis and diagnosis. Using arguments of anticipation as an imperative for inquiry, the purpose of this paper is to introduce generic modelling for living systems theory, and assigns the number of generic constructs to orders of simplex modelling. An nth simplex order rests in an nth order simplex cybernetic space. A general modelling theory of higher orders of simplexity is given, where each higher order responds to every generic construct involved, the properties of which determining the rules of the complex system being that is represented. Higher orders of simplexity also explain greater degrees of complexity relatively simply, and give rise to the development of new paradigms that are better able to explain perceived complex phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

This is part 1 of three linked papers. Using principles that arise from Schwarz’s living systems set within a framework provided by cultural agency theory, and with a rationale provided by Rosen’s and Dubois’ concepts of anticipation, the papers develops a general modelling theory of simplex orders. It shows that with the development of new higher orders, paradigm shifts can occur that become responsible for new ways of seeing and resolving stubborn problematic issues. The paper is composed of two parts. Part 1 establishes the fundamentals for a theory of modelling associated with cybernetic orders. Using this, part 2 establishes the principles of cybernetic orders using simplex modelling. This will include a general theory of generic modelling. Part 3 extends this, developing a fourth order simplex model, and exploring the potential for higher orders using recursive techniques through cultural agency theory.

Findings

Cultural agency theory can be used to generate higher simplex through principles of recursion, and hence to create a potential for the generation of families of new paradigms. The idea of conceptual emergence is also tied to the rise of new paradigms.

Research limitations/implications

The use of higher order simplex models to represent complex situations provides the ability to condense explanation concerning the development of particular system behaviours, and hence simplify the way in which the authors analyse, diagnose and anticipate behaviour in complex situations. Illustration is also given showing how the theory can explain the emergence of new paradigms.

Practical implications

Cultural agency can be used to structure problem issues that may otherwise be problematic, within both a top-down and bottom up approach. It may also be used to assist in establishing behavioural anticipation given an appropriate modelling approach. It may also be used to improve and compress explanation of complex situations.

Originality/value

A new theory of simplex orders arises from the new concept of generic modelling, illustrating cybernetic order. This permits the possibility of improved analysis and diagnosis of problematic situations belonging to complex situations through the use of higher order simplex models, and facilitates improvement in behavioural anticipation.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Hannah Riedle, Ahmed Ghazy, Anna Seufert, Vera Seitz, Bernhard Dorweiler and Jörg Franke

The purpose of this study is the generation of a thorough generic heart model optimized for direct 3D printing with silicone elastomers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the generation of a thorough generic heart model optimized for direct 3D printing with silicone elastomers.

Design/methodology/approach

The base of the model design is segmentation of CT data, followed by a generic adaption and a constructive enhancement. The model is 3D printed with silicone. An evaluation of the physical model gives indications about its benefits and weaknesses.

Findings

The results show the feasibility of a generic design while maintaining anatomical correctness and the benefit of the generic approach to quickly derive a multiplicity of healthy and pathological versions from one single model. The material properties of the silicone model are sufficient for simulation, but the results of the evaluation indicate possible improvements, as for most anatomical features, the used silicone is too hard and too stretchable.

Originality/value

Previous developments mostly focus on patient-specific heart models. In contrast, this study sets out to explore the possibility and benefits of a generic approach. Standardized validated models would allow comparability in surgical simulation.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Orestes Vlismas and George Venieris

This study attempts to formulate an ontological proposition for the intellectual capital (IC) domain. This study is motivated by the debate of contemporary thinking for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to formulate an ontological proposition for the intellectual capital (IC) domain. This study is motivated by the debate of contemporary thinking for different IC research streams (IC1‐ostensive versus IC2‐performative) and their different ontological perceptions for IC. The proposed ontological proposition aims to serve the epistemological requirements towards the development of a common accepted generic IC theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The formulation of the ontology for the IC domain is based on contemporary tools within the fields of ontology and conceptual modelling. The principal dimensions of the ontology for the IC domain are identified following the directions of the Sowa's generalised theory for ontological frameworks. For each dimension, a generic entity is defined by drawing inferences from disciplines relevant to the contemporary IC inquiry. The relationships between the generic entities are modelled with the semantic representations of General Systems Theory (GST).

Findings

This paper provides an answer to the epistemological problem of how to perceive the substance of the IC domain. The derived ontology for the IC domain recognises different IC ontological dimensions that correspond to the IC ontological assumptions of different IC research streams, attempts to associate the IC of an organization with the tangible dimension of the enterprise, and provides conceptual semantics for modelling firm‐specific IC domains under the prism of different epistemological perspectives for IC.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed ontological proposition for the IC domain is an abstract ontology. It might empower researchers with guidelines for systemising the formulation of theoretical propositions and descriptions for their research fields. Yet, as an abstract ontology, it might create difficulty in its practical implementation.

Originality/value

The ontological proposition for the IC domain can contribute towards the debate on the establishment of a common research communicational rationalism within the IC research community for coordinating individual research efforts.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Yu Yu and Yi Zhao

This paper aims to study the post-patent ethical drug market and simulate the impact of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on individuals, health-care…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the post-patent ethical drug market and simulate the impact of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on individuals, health-care providers and pharmaceutical firms. US policymakers have been looking at various ways to curb rising health-care costs in USA, including ways to promote the use of generic drugs in lieu of brand drugs. In this broader context, the implementation of ACA in December 2013 will introduce major changes in the pharmaceutical market.

Design/methodology/approach

To fully understand the impact of such policy changes, we develop a structural model to study consumers’ buying behavior and firm competition in the post-patent ethical drug markets. We use the estimated model parameters to conduct four policy simulations to illustrate the effect of Obamacare on increasing the relative size of price-insensitive segment, reducing price sensitivity in the price-sensitive segment, providing brand price discount to Medicare patients previously in the “donut hole” and the effect of change in people’s attitude toward generics.

Findings

Our model estimation reveals two classes of consumers with different price sensitivities. This heterogeneity explains the increase in the brand price after generic entry. We identify consumers’ switching costs between generic and brand drugs, as well as among different generics. From the policy simulation, we find that except the closure of Medicare donut hole, all other policy changes lead to increased usage of the focal molecule, and the efforts to increase insurance coverage and reduce the out of pocket payment for prescription drugs lead to increase in firm profit.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to illustrate the potential policy effect of Obamacare through a structural model on post-patent ethical drug market.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Fu‐Ren Lin, Meng‐Chyn Yang and Yu‐Hua Pai

Among different BPR strategies and methodologies, one common feature is to capture existing processes and represent new processes adequately. Business process modeling

Abstract

Among different BPR strategies and methodologies, one common feature is to capture existing processes and represent new processes adequately. Business process modeling plays a crucial role on such effort. This paper proposes a generic structure for modeling business processes in order to capture essential concepts of business process and represent them structurally. The generic structure possesses two main features suitable for business process modeling: one is that it can represent a business process in various concerns and multiple layers of abstraction, and the other is that it lowers the barriers between process representation and model analysis by embedding verification and validation with the model. The generic modeling method is illustrated by an order fulfillment process in supply chain networks.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Andrew P. McCoy, Walid Thabet and Ralph Badinelli

The purpose of this paper is to offer a commercialization framework that outlines phases and functional areas for technical and business practices in getting innovative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a commercialization framework that outlines phases and functional areas for technical and business practices in getting innovative products to market. The development of this framework was motivated by a history of failures of entrepreneurial business ventures in the commercialization of construction products.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents Phase 1 of commercialization research efforts, which includes a definition of innovation and commercialization for the residential construction industry; a review of literature related to generic commercialization models; and construction of a new commercialization framework for innovative construction products. This paper also introduces Phase 2 of this research, which includes qualitative and quantitative knowledge capture from construction industry experts; and the development of a domain‐specific commercialization model for the residential industry based on these inputs to reflect the unique challenges of construction products.

Findings

This paper presents a generic commercialization framework as a basis for interpreting various data from product interviews and case study literature. These data were used to further specify the framework. This paper presents an example of the many construction products reviewed in this research and its possible impact on the framework.

Practical implications

The generic commercialization model presented here could benefit innovators of construction products. The research indicates the importance of key steps in the commercialization of these kinds of products.

Originality/value

Since, no model captured the specific issues of commercializing residential construction products, this paper introduces a basis for one. In creating a generic commercialization framework, this paper facilitates entrepreneurial product commercialization for the construction industry.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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