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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2021

Andrew Ebekozien, Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa, Wellington Didibhuku Didibhuku Thwala, Marvelous Isibor Aigbedion and Iliye Faith Ogbaini

Research shows that employers are demanding generic skills from employees to complement disciplinary expertise. Evidence shows that majority of the higher institutions are…

Abstract

Purpose

Research shows that employers are demanding generic skills from employees to complement disciplinary expertise. Evidence shows that majority of the higher institutions are struggling to meet this demand, especially in developing nations. Hence, these skills may be acquired while in the workplace through training and retraining. Studies concerning the Nigerian built environment professionals (BEP) generic skills in the workplace are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate Nigeria’s BEP generic skills in the workplace via an unexplored mechanism and proffer feasible policy solutions that can improve BEP generic skills development.

Design/methodology/approach

The views of BEP were collated via a phenomenology type of qualitative research design across two major Nigerian cities where construction activities are soaring. Virtual interviews were conducted for 20 selected BEP. Data saturation was accomplished and the emerged three themes were analysed through a thematic analysis.

Findings

Findings show that generic skills enhance value for money in construction project delivery. But many of these professionals do not possess these skills in their daily operations. This has raised concerns about the present curriculum for preparing the built environment graduates in today’s profession. Findings categorised the hindrances into employers related-hindrances and employees related-hindrances in Nigeria’s BEP context.

Research limitations/implications

This study is confined to the relevance and hindrances of the generic skills for Nigerian BEP, and proffer feasible policies to promote generic skills in the workplace via a qualitative approach. Future study is needed to investigate the role of the various professional Institutes within Nigeria’s built environment in promoting generic skills.

Practical implications

The paper advanced key stakeholders including BEP Institutes and regulatory bodies to redirect their continuing professional development towards developing professional values and identities as a trajectory to promote the growth of BEP generic skills in the workplace.

Originality/value

The proposed framework can be used to promote the implementation of generic skills for BEP across all levels. This would assist and stir up policymakers and other stakeholders in connection with the implementation of generic skills within the BEP.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

A. Parasuraman

The growing consumer demand for, and acceptance of, so‐called no‐name brands of a variety of food, as well as nonfood, products—from cooking oil to cotton swabs, tomato…

Abstract

The growing consumer demand for, and acceptance of, so‐called no‐name brands of a variety of food, as well as nonfood, products—from cooking oil to cotton swabs, tomato juice to toilet tissue, brownie mix to beauty aids, and liquor to laundry detergent—is a significant development in retailing. No‐name brands have captured about 2 percent of the total grocery sales in the United States in just three years . According to a recent report prepared by A.C. Nielsen Company, no‐name brand shares in the top fifty product categories in which they are strongest range from 4 to 10 percent of the category sales volumes; this is in spite of the fact that no‐name brands have not yet achieved the broad levels of retail distribution enjoyed by branded products . In fact, the share of no‐name brands is as high as 16 percent in certain product categories based on the sales volumes of only those retail outlets that carry them. Contrary to industry expectations, the growth of no‐name brands appears to be a persistent market phenomenon rather than a passing fad. Indeed, retail chains such as Ralph's on the west coast and Jewel in the midwest now have “generic” aisles in their stores.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

L. de Chernatony

By clarifying what is meant by brands, own labels and generics, this article shows that neo‐generics, rather than generics, were launched in the UK. It clarifies that neo…

Abstract

By clarifying what is meant by brands, own labels and generics, this article shows that neo‐generics, rather than generics, were launched in the UK. It clarifies that neo‐generics are in a terminal stage and through an understanding of consumers' perceptions explains why this has occurred. The advent of true generics in the UK is described and the transition from neo‐generics to own labels abroad is noted.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Ugur Yucelt

Generic products are purchased by price‐conscious, careful shoppers, who are not, however, willing to accept a lower quality and limited selection of non‐brand names in…

Abstract

Generic products are purchased by price‐conscious, careful shoppers, who are not, however, willing to accept a lower quality and limited selection of non‐brand names in supermarkets. The behavioural differences between generic product users vs. non‐users are compared in the New England region, using hand‐distributed questionnaires to a convenient sample of 150 respondents.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Andrea Sestino and Cesare Amatulli

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors impacting consumer purchase behaviour for pharmaceutical products.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study based on a quantitative analysis has been conducted with a sample of 100 participants who have been presented with two different scenarios: one related to more serious disease (as in cardiological disease) and one related to less serious disease (as in the seasonal flu). This paper considered Italy as a research setting where the recent mandatory prescription of the active ingredient by doctors leaves the final purchase decision in consumers’ hands

Findings

Results show that, although consumers are free to choose whether to buy a branded or a generic prescribed active ingredient, their choice is mainly driven by the role of the brand. Consumers’ intention to buy generic drugs is higher in the case of diseases perceived as less serious, while the intention to buy branded drugs is higher in the case of disease perceived as more serious.

Originality/value

This study contributes to marketing research and practice by proposing that consumers’ perceived seriousness of their disease should be considered as a further factor in identifying new marketing strategies in those contexts in which the choice between branded or generic drugs is free.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Teresa Bernard Gibson, Catherine G. McLaughlin and Dean G. Smith

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticity of brand-name outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing for maintenance medications…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticity of brand-name outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing for maintenance medications and to estimate the effects of changes in the price differential between generic and brand-name prescription drugs.

Methodology/approach – We first review the literature on the effects of an increase in brand-name drug patient cost-sharing. In addition, we analyze two examples of utilization patterns in filling behavior associated with an increase in brand-name cost-sharing for patients in employer-sponsored health plans with chronic illness.

Findings – We found that the own-price elasticity of demand for brand-name prescription drugs was inelastic. However, the cross-price elasticity was not consistent in sign, and utilization patterns for generic prescription fills did not always increase after a rise in brand-name cost-sharing.

Research limitations – The empirical examples are limited to the experience of patients with employer-sponsored health insurance.

Practical implications – The common practice of increasing brand-name prescription drug patient cost-sharing to increase consumption of generic drugs may not always result in higher generic medication use. Higher brand-name drug cost-sharing levels may result in discontinuation of chronic therapies, instead of therapeutic switching.

Originality/value of chapter – The value of this chapter is its singular focus on the effects of higher brand-name drug cost-sharing through a synthesis of the literature examining the own- and cross-price elasticity of demand for brand-name medications and two empirical examples of the effects of changes in brand-name cost-sharing.

Details

Pharmaceutical Markets and Insurance Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-716-5

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2003

Mary Jane Rootes

Robert Hauptman first raised awareness about the ethical issues of reference service in 1976. Hauptman, a library school student at the time, did a study on the…

Abstract

Robert Hauptman first raised awareness about the ethical issues of reference service in 1976. Hauptman, a library school student at the time, did a study on the culpability, or lack thereof, in reference service provided by librarians. In his study, Hauptman posed as a library patron seeking potentially dangerous information. The behavior examined was how librarians respond to the request for material on how to build a bomb that would be powerful enough to blow up a house. Hauptman tried to present himself as a person of questionable character. He used six public and seven academic libraries in this study. Hauptman first made sure that he was speaking to the reference librarian. He then requested information for the construction of a small explosive, requesting specifically the chemical properties of cordite. He then asked for information on the potency of such an explosive, whether or not it could blow up a suburban house (Hauptman, Wilson Library Bulletin, 1976, p. 626).

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-206-1

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Marc G. Schildkraut

The Supreme Court’s decision in Federal Trade Commission v. Actavis, Inc. is a challenge to conventional antitrust analysis. Conventional civil antitrust cases are decided…

Abstract

The Supreme Court’s decision in Federal Trade Commission v. Actavis, Inc. is a challenge to conventional antitrust analysis. Conventional civil antitrust cases are decided by a preponderance of the evidence. This means that conduct challenged under the rule of reason is only condemned if the conduct resulted in more competitive harm in the actual world than a world without the alleged violation. Under conventional analysis, the intent of the parties also plays only a supporting role in determining whether the conduct was anticompetitive. A holder of a valid patent has a right to exclude others practicing the patented technology. And, the patent holder is not assumed to have market power because it expended resources in maintaining exclusionary rights. Actavis creates doubts about these propositions in circumstances beyond the “reverse” payment settlement of a patent suit that may have delayed an alleged infringer market entry. This chapter explores whether applying Actavis logic to antitrust litigation can result in condemnation of practices where there is little chance of an anticompetitive effect, where the patent holder likely has a valid and infringed patent, where there is little reason to believe that the patent holder has market power, and where only one party, or no parties, to an agreement have an anticompetitive intent. This chapter also investigates whether Actavis creates new problems with standing analysis, damages calculations, and the balancing of efficiencies against anticompetitive effects. Nevertheless, the lower courts have begun to extend the logic of Actavis. This is apparent in the condemnation of no-Authorized-generic settlements.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Michael A. Carrier and Steve D. Shadowen

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies have engaged in a variety of business conduct that has increased price. One of these activities involves “product hopping,” or brand…

Abstract

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies have engaged in a variety of business conduct that has increased price. One of these activities involves “product hopping,” or brand switches from one version of a drug to another. The antitrust analysis of product hopping implicates antitrust law, patent law, the Hatch–Waxman Act, and state drug product selection laws, as well as uniquely complicated markets characterized by buyers different from decision makers. As a result, courts have offered inconsistent approaches to product hopping.

In this chapter, we offer a framework that courts and government enforcers can employ to analyze product hopping. The framework is the first to incorporate the characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry. It defines a “product hop” to include instances in which the manufacturer (1) reformulates the product to make the generic nonsubstitutable and (2) encourages doctors to write prescriptions for the reformulated rather than the original product.

When the conduct meets both requirements, our framework offers two stages of analysis. First, we propose two safe harbors to ensure that the vast majority of reformulations will not face antitrust review. Second, the framework examines whether the hop passes the “no-economic-sense” test, determining if the behavior would make economic sense if the hop did not have the effect of impairing generic competition. Showing just how far the courts have veered from justified economic analysis, the test would recommend a different analysis than that used in each of the five product-hopping cases that have been litigated to date, and a different outcome in two of them.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Karin Barac, Kato Plant, Rolien Kunz and Marina Kirstein

This study investigates perceptions regarding generic skills future entry-level accountants and auditors will require. Such soft or pervasive skills are necessary to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates perceptions regarding generic skills future entry-level accountants and auditors will require. Such soft or pervasive skills are necessary to operate effectively in the future world of work. Prior research mainly explores generic skills from an attribute-based perspective, while this paper combines it with an activity-based perspective in generic skill profiles of accountants and auditors.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a mixed methods research approach through focus group discussions and a survey involving more than 3,000 professional accountants and/or auditors, the study uses data from the Southern African region (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia) to determine views on the competency needs of future accountants and auditors. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether categories of generic skills for future entry-level accountants and auditors differ.

Findings

Four generic skills factors emerged as essential for future entry-level chartered accountants (CAs): digital, decision-making, organisational and business acumens. Three generic skill factors emerged for future registered auditors (RAs): digital, practice and commercial acumens. The results show that generic skill profiles of CAs and RAs, who are members of an accounting body differ and that both the context, related to an activity-based perspective, and individual or internal abilities, related to an attribute-based perspective, matter.

Research limitations/implications

The study extends generic skill theory by identifying broad categories of generic skills (referred to as acumens) for future accountants and auditors.

Practical implications

Insights from this paper facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the generic skill profile approach, combining attribute-based and activity-based perspectives, and this could assist accounting educators, practitioners and professional bodies to better prepare entry-level accounting and audit professionals for the workplace.

Originality/value

The study identifies broad categories (digital, decision-making, organisational, business, practice and commercial acumens) within generic skill profiles of CAs and RAs and shows that generic skills do not operate independently and should be viewed as an interdependent set or constellation of competencies.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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