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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Gökay Selcuk and Lech Suwala

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of…

Abstract

Purpose

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of motivation, resources, generational pathways of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs in Berlin – through the lens of a mixed and multiple embeddedness approach.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative research design, based on an eclectic theoretical framework and on purposive sampling, combines qualitative in-depth interviews/content analysis and on-site observation resulting in an almost ethnographic assessment of selected case studies of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs (concerning age (min. 20 years), size (15+ employees) and currently at a stage of succession).

Findings

The results show that despite specific strategies vary – four circumstances hold true for all cases: (1) firm trajectories were characterized by little strategic planning and mostly trail-and error processes in the past and business survival is highly dependent on owner families; (2) owner families heavily relied on personal, family and collective resources, not benefiting from promotion programmes or micro-funding measures for SMEs; (3) owner families have actively developed their (mixed) embeddings during the growth of their migrant business beyond the single ethnic group at various spatial scales; (4) succession adds another layer of context – what we call here multiple embeddedness – with ambivalent effects: emerging potentials and conflicts between the preceding and succeeding generation.

Practical implications

Results have shown that is it necessary to set up both: customized funding opportunities for migrant start-ups in general and succession consulting for migrant family entrepreneurs in particular. Given the magnitude of family migrant entrepreneurs and the accelerating migration patterns in most Western European countries, there is urgent need for such measures.

Originality/value

Family entrepreneurship has been often discussed without a migration perspective, neither taking a systematic look at pertinent motivation, resources, and future trajectories nor context. Migrant entrepreneurship studies barely take the family or family-specific issues (e.g. succession) into account, and mainly deal with the integration or economic aspects. Our mixed and multiple embeddedness approach allows for a holistic view on transgenerational migrant family entrepreneurship by integrating both socio-spatial (actor, family, network, micro, meso, macro) and multi-generational contexts (preceding, succeeding).

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Andrea Caputo, Giacomo Marzi, Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini and Riccardo Rialti

The purpose of this study is to map the intellectual structure of the field of conflict management and the field of family business to the investigation of conflicts in…

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4865

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to map the intellectual structure of the field of conflict management and the field of family business to the investigation of conflicts in family firms, with the aim of contributing to the further integration of knowledge between the two fields.

Design/methodology/approach

Family conflicts and work–family balance issues also received a lot of attention, yet studies in conflict management still seem to overlook a thorough investigation of conflict in family businesses. Conflict is a major aspect of family businesses, which differs highly from non-family businesses, and offers an important research avenue for conflict management scholars to contribute to the investigation of major characteristics of organisations that constitute a large part of the value created in the world.

Findings

The results of a bibliometric analysis and systematic literature review show that studies concerning conflict in family business aggregate around three clusters: organisational conflicts; firm growth and conflicts; and family control, performance and conflicts. An interpretative framework is also developed to interpret how antecedents, conflicts and growth dynamics in family business influence performances. Findings show how family conflicts and work–family balance issues received a lot of attention, yet studies in conflict management still seem to miss a thorough investigation of conflict in family businesses.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the field of conflict management and family business by providing a systematic analysis of knowledge and family firms. This paper can be a starting point for researchers interested in understanding how conflicts affect family businesses.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2010

John James Cater and Robert T. Justis

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the development and implementation of shared leadership in multi‐generational family firms. Shared leadership or family…

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4066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the development and implementation of shared leadership in multi‐generational family firms. Shared leadership or family top management teams involve multiple family members in the top management and ownership of family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach was employed, using in‐depth interviews of the top managers of four family businesses. Each case was analyzed separately, and emergent themes found in each case; and then generalizations were made across the four cases in the cross‐case analysis.

Findings

Eight factors or conditions were examined that affect shared leadership in multi‐generational family firms according to the respondents – long‐term orientation, close communication and shared understanding, resistance to change, succession planning, failure to release control, reporting relationship confusion, increased decision time, and higher decision quality. The result of this study is the production of eight propositions to build theory concerning shared leadership, which is an under‐researched area for family business studies.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is rich in qualitative detail, but with all such case study research, its limitations regarding sample size are recognized.

Practical implications

This paper views shared leadership as a growing phenomenon that incumbent family business leaders should consider as a viable alternative to primogeniture or the choice of a single successor.

Originality/value

The study described in this paper is groundbreaking in that it examines shared leadership or the development and implementation of top management teams in family firms in depth and detail. The paper contributes a balanced view of the implementation of shared leadership in family firms, exploring both the positive and negative aspects.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Phil Lambert, Warren Marks, Virginia Elliott and Natalie Johnston-Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the existence and perceived influence of “generational collide” for teachers and leaders across three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the existence and perceived influence of “generational collide” for teachers and leaders across three generations – Baby Boomers, Generation X (Gen X) and Generation Y (Gen Y). The study sought to further determine if a teacher’s generation, gender, school level or position influenced their beliefs about generational leadership change.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a cross-sectional survey using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. A random sample of teachers and leaders from schools in the Sydney metropolitan area participated in a questionnaire (n=244) and a purposive sample of eight participants from each of the three generational groups (n=24) participated in a follow up interview.

Findings

The data revealed that teachers and leaders across all three generations agreed that “generational collide” is real and is currently happening in some schools. Each generation has their own perceptions about the “collide” and often do not recognise that this may differ for other generations. In relation to the key variables, this study demonstrated that primary teachers were significantly more likely to believe that generational leadership change was happening than secondary teachers and that Baby Boomers were significantly more likely to view their staying on past retirement age as positive compared to both Gen X and Gen Y.

Practical implications

The findings from this study have practical implications for system leaders charged with the responsibility of providing the supply of quality leadership for schools through effective succession planning programmes and policies.

Social implications

The findings from this study have social implications for principals’ (and deputy principals’) professional associations who have the responsibility for the personal, professional and career welfare of principals and aspiring principals.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the growing body of evidence around generational collide in schools by providing an Australian perspective on the phenomenon. Moreover, this paper raises important concerns for school leaders and administrators involved in leadership development initiatives at the micro, meso and macro levels. Teachers in each generation have specific beliefs around promotion, career pathways, knowledge transfer and talent retention that need to be recognised and considered in future succession planning.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Yong Wang, David Watkins, Neil Harris and Keith Spicer

Researchers widely argue that the most significant difference between family controlled and non‐family business concerns the way in which executive succession occurs, and…

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9289

Abstract

Researchers widely argue that the most significant difference between family controlled and non‐family business concerns the way in which executive succession occurs, and more specifically, unique aspects of the process of intergenerational family business transfer. The importance of this study is acknowledged by the fact that it offers researchers and practitioners empirical evidence that links succession issues and the state of performance in UK‐based small‐ and medium‐sized family businesses. The article commences with a review of the conceptual framework that relates to the critical factors influencing the succession process, followed by an introduction of the methodology. Then the article proceeds with a detailed statistical analysis based on a stratified randomly selected sample (169 small‐ and medium‐sized family controlled businesses). In summary, the article concludes with a set of tentative recommendations. It is anticipated that this study will enable a deep debate of the issues surrounding the succession practice and raise a wide awareness of the critical factors shaping the ownership transition.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Gil Bozer, Leon Levin and Joseph C. Santora

Despite the extensive breadth of research into the critical challenge of succession in family business, generational succession in family business has been investigated…

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8417

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the extensive breadth of research into the critical challenge of succession in family business, generational succession in family business has been investigated from predominately one-dimensional perspective. The purpose of this paper is to respond to call for a multi-perspectives examination of leadership succession in order to embrace the dynamic and complex nature of succession in a family business. Accordingly, the authors investigated the key personal and professional factors associated with effective family-business succession across four key stakeholders: incumbent, successor, family, and nonfamily members.

Design/methodology/approach

The explanatory research design included 16 interviews in Phase 1 and 41 prospective case study interviews in Phase 2, both with Australian family businesses that had or were about to experience generational transition.

Findings

Incumbents and successor interview findings support the benefits of maintaining a cohesive family business, adaptable family culture, and familiness for effective succession. The authors also identified several personal components (e.g. family-business socialization and external experiences) that can help determine the commitment of successors and how this commitment can change once they assume a leadership position. Business size was the professional component supported by incumbent, successor, and nonfamily members as having a significant impact on succession process. As family business grows and becomes more highly complex, a clearly defined set of procedures become imperative.

Practical implications

Family-business practitioners can apply the findings to manage the processes and expectations of family and the business to achieve effective generational succession and thereby increase the sustainability of the business.

Originality/value

This research provides a coherent and comprehensive understanding of the interdependencies of competing priorities in the complex succession process that is essential for family-business sustainability and performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Joseph Kie Kuong Tang and Wan Sabri Hussin

This research study focusses on the succession challenges in small-medium outboard marine businesses of Malaysian Chinese family ownership. The founder-owners face…

Abstract

Purpose

This research study focusses on the succession challenges in small-medium outboard marine businesses of Malaysian Chinese family ownership. The founder-owners face challenges in convincing the next-generation members to establish their careers within the family business and to ensure successions are in place to safeguard the family's wealth. A gap exists in the research literatures concerning such family business owners; and their experiences would provide valuable information to other Malaysian Chinese family businesses planning to start the succession journey.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study methodology to research five Malaysian Chinese family businesses cases in Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia, is used in this study. The primary qualitative data were obtained through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and observations. The research data lead to the identification of the following themes: generational change affects the survival of small-medium Malaysian Chinese family-owned businesses; the founder-owners' intention and desire for business to pass to the next generation give rise to the imperative of succession; the founder-owners' motive and goals, family context and the business nature would determine a large part to how the succession plans are carried out and the upbringing, expectation and obligations would determine how the next generations of children would view the prospect of taking over the family business. From this, a succession model that detailed an inclusive approach to succession planning process between the two generations is established.

Research limitations/implications

A small purposive sample is included, and it is recommended that a larger and more diverse sample be collected in future studies. This study follows a nuclear family structure of parents and children. If more Chinese family businesses are selected based on a wider set of family members such as uncles and cousins, the findings may differ.

Social implications

This research study could also facilitate other Malaysian family businesses to rethink and refocus on the importance of undertaking an inclusive approach to succession planning and also help potential next-generation successors in understanding and working towards attaining the qualities that family firms look for in future leaders.

Originality/value

The researcher summarizes the study findings into a management succession model. An inclusive succession approach is needed to overcome these challenges and would enable sustainability, continuity and longevity of the family business. This would help the family business to understand that succession is not a single event but a process that needs to be planned together with the next-generation family members over a certain period of time.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Louise Scholes, Paul Westhead and Andrew Burrows

This exploratory study aims to provide fresh insights into the ownership transfer of private family firms through internal management buy‐out (MBO) and external management…

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3766

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to provide fresh insights into the ownership transfer of private family firms through internal management buy‐out (MBO) and external management buy‐in (MBI) succession routes. The paper aims to explore if flows of information impact the succession planning process and if the nature of succession planning impacts the business sale negotiation process relating to family firms that select MBO/MBI succession routes.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by insights from agency theory and theories relating to information asymmetries and negotiation behaviour six hypotheses were derived. Private family firms that had received venture capital and the MBO/I deals had been completed between 1994 and 2003 were identified. A structured survey was administered to 117 senior members of acquiring MBO/I management teams after the deal had been completed in several European countries. Non‐parametric chi‐square tests and Mann‐Whitney “U” tests were used to test the presented hypotheses.

Findings

Evidence highlights the importance of information sharing and that the family owner(s) may not always be in the strongest position. MBOs reported lower information asymmetry. Also, lower information asymmetry was reported when vendors and management were involved in succession planning. Internal managers with greater access to information were found to influence the negotiation process and determine who is more likely to benefit from the price to be paid for the firm. A mutually agreed price was less likely when management controlled information and when personal equity providers (PEP) were involved in the process supporting the interests of the MBO/I team.

Practical implications

Family firm owners need to plan for succession planning. Vendors of family firms need to leverage external professional advice when negotiating the sale of their ventures to ensure “family agendas” are protected.

Originality/value

This study has extended the conceptual work of Howorth et al. surrounding the succession of family firms through MBOs and MBIs. Rather than relying on case study evidence alone, cross‐sectional survey evidence was explored within a univariate statistical framework to explore gaps in the knowledge base relating to succession planning and business sale negotiation behaviour.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Robert N. Lussier and Matthew C. Sonfield

The purpose of this paper is to compare first‐, second‐, and third‐generation family business managerial characteristics and practices in a combined sample from six…

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2429

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare first‐, second‐, and third‐generation family business managerial characteristics and practices in a combined sample from six countries (Croatia, Egypt, France, India, Kuwait, and the USA) with significant differences in cultures, economies, levels of entrepreneurial activity, and family business demographics.

Design/methodology/approach

The design was survey research with a sample of 593 businesses from six countries. To compare differences between the three generations, analysis of covariance was run for the 11 dependent variables, followed by post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference multiple comparisons tests to determine which of the three generations were significantly different.

Findings

As family businesses move from first to second to third generation, some managerial characteristics and practices remain the same while others change. Furthermore, only minor generational differences between the various countries were found, thus supporting commonality of family businesses in spite of the differing cultural, economic, and demographic variations.

Research limitations/implications

The results lead to an improvement in our understanding of entrepreneurial behavior and managerial characteristics and practices between generations of family business in six very diverse economic and cultural settings.

Originality/value

Prior family business research has rarely focused specifically on comparisons of first‐, second‐, and third‐generation firms. No prior research combined family firm data from different countries. The analyses are more complex and mixed than the methodologies used in most of the limited previous research, raising questions and indicating a need for further research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

John James Cater, Marilyn Young and Keanon Alderson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contributions of both successors and incumbent leaders to family firm continuity, using insights from the family business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contributions of both successors and incumbent leaders to family firm continuity, using insights from the family business succession literature and cultural dimensions theory.

Design/methodology/approach

In a qualitative study, the succession practices of 19 Mexican-American family firms were examined.

Findings

The findings are encapsulated by seven propositions and a model of Mexican-American family firm generational contributions and constraints to family business continuity.

Originality/value

In-depth interviews with immigrant and second generation family firm leaders revealed both traditional family firm succession patterns and atypical succession patterns, including generational inversion and equals across generations.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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