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Article

Kelly Pledger Weeks, Matthew Weeks and Nicolas Long

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the trends found in a qualitative study on generational stereotypes, questions on work ethic, work-life balance, and use of technology were administered to 255 participants identified as Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. Hypotheses predicted that with a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism will not be found; however, an in-group bolstering effect will emerge. In the absence of a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism is expected.

Findings

Generally, there was a strong stereotype that Baby Boomers are worse at technology than Generation X and Generation X is worse than Millennials. There was also a strong stereotype that Millennials do not do what it takes to get the job done as much as other generations. In the presence of these stereotypes, traditional in-group favoritism was not found, but in-groups bolstered themselves by rating themselves more favorably than other groups rated them. Although these findings did not hold for every item studied, there was moderate support for all three hypotheses.

Practical implications

As employees become aware of their biases, they can collaborate better with employees who are different than they are. Practical recommendations are suggested.

Originality/value

The paper applies theory of in-group favoritism to the perceptions of generational cohorts.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

David McGuire, Rune Todnem By and Kate Hutchings

Achieving intergenerational interaction and avoiding conflict is becoming increasingly difficult in a workplace populated by three generations – Baby Boomers, Generation…

Abstract

Purpose

Achieving intergenerational interaction and avoiding conflict is becoming increasingly difficult in a workplace populated by three generations – Baby Boomers, Generation X‐ers and Generation Y‐ers. This paper presents a model and proposes HR solutions towards achieving co‐operative generational interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adapts Park's theory of race relations to explain the distinctiveness of generational work groups and the challenges and opportunities that these groups present when interacting in organisations. Rashford and Coghlan's cycle of organisational change, based on the Kübler‐Ross grief cycle, is then mapped onto Park's race relations cycle in order to link generational interaction to emotional reactions to change over time.

Findings

The paper sets out a research agenda for examining how generations interact in the workplace. It acknowledges the limitations of using Park's theory of race relations, in particular the criticisms levelled at assimilationist approaches.

Originality/value

The paper provides an alternative viewpoint for examining how generations co‐exist and interact and shows how HR solutions can respond to the needs of different generations.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article

Ahmad Reza Akhavan Sarraf, Mehdi Abzari, Ali Nasr Isfahani and Saeed Fathi

Understanding generational differences are important because generational diversity can affect work relationships and the effectiveness of communication, engagement and…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding generational differences are important because generational diversity can affect work relationships and the effectiveness of communication, engagement and performance management strategies. On the other hand, organizations should be concerned about employee engagement, considering all the positive outcomes that engaged employees could bring to the workplace. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this study is to examine employee engagement of different generations in Iran. Four hypotheses were proposed regarding job engagement and its constructs: vigor, dedication and absorption. The study utilized ANOVA tests to detect statistically significant differences between generations.

Findings

The results revealed not only a number of significant differences among generations, but also some similarities. The study shows the value of generational analysis as a useful segmentation criterion in organizational behavior researches.

Originality/value

To distinguish between different generations in relation to job engagement, also better understanding the behavior of generational cohorts that affect the success of organizations. It helps managers to find and resolve the conflict among persons and groups in the organization and also to achieve the benefits of diversity, creativity and energy of generations.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article

Jihyun Kim

This research provides a comprehensive overview of the luxury brand cognitive and affective experience, category ownerships and consumption level of affluent adult…

Abstract

Purpose

This research provides a comprehensive overview of the luxury brand cognitive and affective experience, category ownerships and consumption level of affluent adult consumers in the USA. The purpose of this study was to illuminate generational cohorts’ differences and/or similarities among the consumers regarding collecting behavior of, brand self-congruity toward and emotional brand attachment with fashion luxury brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross-sectional quantitative approach, the authors conducted a national, representative online survey, 443 usable responses were collected from four generational cohorts, namely, older boomers, younger boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials, who reported an annual household income of US$150,000 or more. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to provide the empirical findings.

Findings

Findings suggest that there are significant differences in the luxury brands they owned the most; Millennials exhibited significantly more frequent purchases of luxury fashion goods for all retail types – both brick-and-mortar and online, as well as upscale and discount-image retailers, compared to older Baby Boomers; and there are clear distinctions of cognitive, affective and behavioral responses toward fashion luxury goods between Millennials and older Baby Boomers. For instance, Millennials are more emotionally attached to luxury fashion brands, they see themselves more aligned with the brand image, and they collect such goods significantly more, compared to the older Baby Boomers.

Originality/value

By providing empirical evidence of contrasting each generational group’s unique consumption behavior in terms of luxury brand goods such as ownership level (accessible vs high-end luxury), retail channel choice behavior, cognitive, affective and behavioral responses toward the luxury fashion goods, the authors provided clear strategies for the luxury brand managers regarding two distinctive segments in the luxury marketplace.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

Dwight M. Hite, Joshua J. Daspit and Xueni Dong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in work ethic across ethnic and generational groups within the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review on work ethic, ethnicity, and transculturation, an analysis of variance based on 873 survey responses is presented. The sample includes undergraduate and graduate students at several public universities within the USA.

Findings

An empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that the variation of work ethic perceptions within the Millennial generation is significantly less than the variation among older generations. The authors find no significant difference in general work ethic perceptions among Millennial ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

While the study is conducted using a convenience sample, the demographics are closely representative of the USA labor force. The results suggest that Millennials, while a more diverse ethnic population, exhibit less variation among work ethic perceptions than earlier generational groups.

Practical implications

Understanding differences in work ethic perceptions across various ethnic groups is valuable for managers interested in designing jobs that appropriately exploit the full value of a multi-generational workforce.

Originality/value

The findings of this study offer new insights into how more recent generations, while more ethnically diverse, exhibit a convergence in perceptions of work ethic.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article

Hui‐Chun, Yu and Peter Miller

It is well researched and reported that the culture of a nation has a major impact on employees’ work related values, attitudes and expectations. The objective of this…

Abstract

It is well researched and reported that the culture of a nation has a major impact on employees’ work related values, attitudes and expectations. The objective of this study was to investigate if western research on the generation gap applies equally to generational groups in Taiwan’s workplaces, specifically in the higher education sector and manufacturing industry. The research found that groups in the manufacturing industry share generational differences with their western counterparts. However, the research has demonstrated that western research results in respect to generational differences do not apply to the generational workers in the Taiwan education sector. In addition to these findings, the reseach has uncovered some anomalies with specific research findings in the western literature.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article

Andrée-Anne Deschênes

Through three dimensions of person–environment (PE) fit, namely person–job (PJ) fit, person–group (PG) fit and person–supervisor (PS) fit, this paper examines generational

Abstract

Purpose

Through three dimensions of person–environment (PE) fit, namely person–job (PJ) fit, person–group (PG) fit and person–supervisor (PS) fit, this paper examines generational differences on which dimension is more important to explain Baby Boomers', Generation X's and Generation Y's satisfaction with work.

Design/methodology/approach

Gathered from a sample of 1,065 employees in the province of Québec, Canada, data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings suggest that Generation X scored lower on satisfaction with work, that there is a difference in the level of PG fit and PS fit between the generations, and that PJ fit explains satisfaction with work for all generations, while PG fit is significant only for Generation Y employees.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on the importance for practitioners, when implementing human resource (HR) policies and strategies aiming to increase satisfaction with work, of prioritizing PJ fit and to consider PG fit for Generation Y members.

Originality/value

This research provides a meaningful contribution to current knowledge on generational diversity in the workplace and its impact on managerial practices by examining different levels of satisfaction with work and of PJ, PG and PS fit for three generations and the importance of each type of fit in explaining satisfaction with work for theses generations.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

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Article

Raquel Reis Soares, Ting Ting (Christina) Zhang, João F. Proença and Jay Kandampully

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine generational differences in complaint and post-recovery behaviors after service failures and recoveries, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine generational differences in complaint and post-recovery behaviors after service failures and recoveries, and to investigate the key factors that relate to Generation Y consumers’ responses.

Design/methodology/approach

In a two-stage approach, Study 1 investigates generational differences in the complaint and repurchase behaviors of a vast sample of more than 36,000 customers. Study 2 examines which factors influence Generation Y consumers’ decisions to complain and to repurchase.

Findings

Across four generational cohorts (the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y), consumers in Generation Y are the most likely to complain about service failures and repurchase after a satisfactory service recovery. The service recovery paradox thus is a generational feature. Generation Y’s unique characteristics – being tech savvy, heavily influenced by peers, and untrusting of brands – relate closely to their complaint and repurchase patterns. These prolific users of social media tend to stay with a service provider after experiencing satisfactory recovery but are more inclined to complain.

Originality/value

This study contributes to service management literature by revealing generational differences in customers’ complaint behavior and responses to recovery efforts, while also testing repurchase behavior rather than just behavioral intentions. This study provides valuable insights into the unique factors that influence Generation Y consumers’ complaint and post-recovery responses.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article

Olivia Johnson and Stefanie Ann Ramirez

Omnichannel retailing has changed the behaviour of consumers by empowering activities like showrooming which is the process of collecting product information in store then…

Abstract

Purpose

Omnichannel retailing has changed the behaviour of consumers by empowering activities like showrooming which is the process of collecting product information in store then making the purchase online. Since individuals, particularly Millennials, interact with multiple touchpoints throughout their shopping journey, retailers must consider how these experiences influence purchasing behaviour. Literature regarding showrooming has focussed primarily on antecedents to the phenomenon and the negative effects to brick and mortar retailers, however limited studies have investigated the quantitative influence of showrooming from the consumers' perspective. While data show that interest in online shopping is spiking, a vast majority of retail sales are made in-store suggesting barriers to online shopping still exist. Thus, the purpose of this research is to identify the role of showrooming in decreasing risk in an online shopping context. Additionally, Millennial generational cohorts (MGCs) were proposed as moderators in exploring the differences between the dimensions of perceived risk and online shopping intention.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the relationship between showrooming and MGCs online shopping behaviour an online survey was administered. Data were collected from 480 Millennial consumers at a large southwestern university. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the direction, magnitude and significance of relationships within the models.

Findings

Results from the analysis revealed showrooming and MGCs influence online shopping behaviour as it relates to dimensions of risk. Moreover, showrooming increased online shopping intention specifically in relation to product and financial risk.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the relevant literature by proposing a relationship between showrooming and online shopping behaviour. This research provides evidence that Millennials are not a monolithic generation and consume differently.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Book part

Cynthia M. Jackson, James J. Maroney and Timothy J. Rupert

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to…

Abstract

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to ensure its financial solvency, our study examines the acceptability of proposals to reform the system. Given the potentially divergent views suggested by prior research, we selected participants from the following four groups (1) younger black taxpayers, (2) younger white taxpayers, (3) older black taxpayers, and (4) older white taxpayers. While there was agreement among the groups on several of the proposals, in general, the differences between the generations were more pronounced than the differences between the racial groups.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-464-5

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