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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2022

Miguel A. Baeza, Jorge Gonzalez, Olga Chapa and Richard A. Rodriguez

The authors study the role of collectivistic norms and beliefs on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in Mexico, including differences across gender and generations.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors study the role of collectivistic norms and beliefs on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in Mexico, including differences across gender and generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors researched the relationship between Mexican employees' collectivistic norms and beliefs and their OCBs, which the authors grouped into etic (universal), emic (regional) and unique (indigenous) categories, the latter referred to as Mexican OCBs (MOCBs). The authors also studied the role of gender and generations as moderators.

Findings

Collective norms had a positive relationship only on the etic OCBs of sportsmanship, while collective beliefs impacted altruism and civic virtue; the etic OCBs of personal development, protecting company resources, interpersonal harmony; and the MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie. Collective beliefs on the etic OCB of altruism, the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCB of camaraderie were stronger for workers from Xers than for Millennials. Moderation tests also showed that collective belief had stronger effects on the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie for men than for women.

Research limitations/implications

Gender roles in emerging economies where society is characterized by collectivistic attributes, especially in a sample drawn from professional employees, may have changed. This could explain the reason why most of the interactions were stronger for men. Future studies involving gender roles should look beyond a demographic variable and design an instrument measuring self-perceptions of role identity, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974). This study's findings could be generalized, particularly, to other Latin American nations, but scholars should acknowledge differences in economic development and gender roles, as well as unique cultural elements (Arriagada, 2014; Hofstede, 1980).

Practical implications

The results of this study yield three practical implications for international managers, including (1) distinguishing between the impact of changing cultural norms or beliefs on OCBs, (2) understanding how demographic factors such as gender or generation may influence the degree of OCBs exhibited in the workplace by specific employee groups, and (3) identifying cultural contexts which promote OCBs. First, workers from a younger generation in a collectivistic society, such as Millennials, respond less positively than workers from older generations to cultural beliefs concerning OCBs, such that they are less willing to engage in a particular category of OCBs including protecting company resources.

Social implications

Global managers should be aware that employees engage in distinct OCBs for different reasons. Emphasizing cultural rules and norms behind helping one another may backfire in Mexico, particularly among men and younger generations of workers. This is understandable for these OCBs. For example, engaging in personal development for the organization's sake due to collective norms may be less effective that pursuing personal development opportunities that employees are passionate about or recognize as beneficial for their careers. Dedication and sportsmanship behaviors that stem from rules are likely less strong or effective as OCBs employees engage in due to strong beliefs or altruistic spontaneity.

Originality/value

The authors filled a gap in scholar's understanding of cultural norms and beliefs on behavior. Specifically, the authors found that cultural beliefs shape etic, emic and unique MOCBs, particularly for men and older generations, and that cultural norms have a negligible and sometimes negative role, being positively related only to the etic OCB of sportsmanship.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

William J. Scarborough, Deborah Fessenden and Ray Sin

Research on gender attitudes has consistently found that younger generations have more gender egalitarian views than older generations. Less attention, however, has been…

Abstract

Research on gender attitudes has consistently found that younger generations have more gender egalitarian views than older generations. Less attention, however, has been directed toward examining whether the generation gap has grown or shrunk over time and whether it differs across dimensions of gender attitudes. Using data from the General Social Survey for years 1977–2018,the authors examine the generational gap in gender attitudes across three components: views toward women in leadership, working mothers, and the gendered division of family labor between public and private spheres. The results show that differences between generations vary significantly across these dimensions. Attitudes have converged over time in support for women’s leadership, yet Baby Boomers espouse slightly higher levels of support than other generations, including the younger Generation Xers and Millennials. In contrast, consistent generation gaps are observed in support for working mothers, where younger generations hold more supportive views than respective older generations. Attitudes toward the gendered division of public/private sphere labor have converged between Millennials, Generation Xers, and Baby Boomers, with only Pre-Baby Boomers holding significantly more traditional views. Collectively, these trends highlight how cultural change through cohort replacement does not uniformly advance gender egalitarian ideologies. Instead, these shifts vary across specific dimensions of gender attitudes.

Details

Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Kathryn Eileen Holden and Deana M. Raffo

– The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between generational membership and perspectives on female leadership.

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2035

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between generational membership and perspectives on female leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants from Generation X (birth years from 1961 to 1980) and Generation Y (birth years from 1981 to 2000) rated 10 descriptor words, which came from Kouzes and Posner’s ten most admired leadership characteristics. Participants were put into three gender conditions: rating a male leader, female leader or gender-neutral leader.

Findings

Differences did not emerge for the gender conditions, probably due to the methodology implemented. However, findings indicated that Generation X members admired competency and honesty more than Generation Y members, while Generation Y members admired ambitiousness and determination more than Generation X members.

Social implications

By examining the perceptions of different generations, we can begin to track potential changes in this country’s perspective on female leadership.

Originality/value

This study addresses how generation may be specifically linked to attitudes toward leadership; however, few empirical research projects have been done on the subject. Because this area of research has not been explored thoroughly, the present study has the potential to yield new and illuminating results. The present study may be one of the first steps in determining if our views on female leadership are changing.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Xiang Yi, Barbara Ribbens, Linna Fu and Weibo Cheng

– The purpose of this paper is to compare and understand how age, gender and culture affect individual career and work-related attitudes in Chinese and American samples.

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6565

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and understand how age, gender and culture affect individual career and work-related attitudes in Chinese and American samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Online and printed questionnaires were administered to employees and managers in China, whereas in the USA, faculty, staff and students at a Midwestern university responded to an online survey. Snowball sampling technique was used to collect data. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to test the hypothesis.

Findings

The study showed different work values and attitudes in the workplace between Chinese and the US samples, and indicated the specifics influences that national culture has on them. Culture affects generational changes; generational differences in the US sample are bigger than in Chinese sample; work values differ across generations and cultures; traditional gender role differences persist more strongly across generations in Chinese sample than in the US sample.

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability issues; cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

US-based multi-national corporations need to understand these differences and better manage their diverse employees operating in China.

Originality/value

This study compared generation, culture and gender differences simultaneously; parallel groups at similar life stages were used by basing the boundaries of each generation on the distinct cultural events of each nation. This approach is more consistent with generation definitions than by using influential specific events of each country, respectively. Useful to managers, it will provide guidance for understanding work values and attitudes across gender and generations in the USA and China. Most benefit will occur for US based multinational companies that have Chinese operations, and manage employees with cultural, gender and generational differences.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2007

Kjersti Melberg

This chapter focuses on Norwegian farm families by analysing succession patterns across generations and genders in “beanpole” families, i.e. those with several living…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on Norwegian farm families by analysing succession patterns across generations and genders in “beanpole” families, i.e. those with several living generations (Brannen, Moss, & Mooney, 2004). The focus is on transfer of property in the case of farm families and its importance for gender relations. Succession here refers to the transfer of farm management control, which may be seen as a continuous, multi-phase process in farm families which begins when the successor is young with gradual assumption of specific responsibilities within the farm business (Symes, 1990). One aim of the chapter is to connect changes in succession praxis in the case of farm families in Norway with the societal changes of three-four generations over the twentieth century. The dynamics of families and households are regarded as key elements of issues such as farm structure (Bengtson, 2001; Bokemeier, 1997; Hareven, 1996; Willson, Shuey, & Elder, 2003), and farm families offer an interesting case for examining intergenerational relations (Brandth, 2002; Elder, Rudkin, & Conger, 1995; Elder, Robertson, & Rudkin, 1996; Lee & Cassidy, 1981; Melberg, 2003).

Details

Gender Regimes, Citizen Participation and Rural Restructuring
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1420-1

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Marcia Texler Segal and Vasilikie Demos

This introduction discusses the ways the idea of generation has been used in scholarship, for the general public, and in marketing to define and discuss social trends and

Abstract

This introduction discusses the ways the idea of generation has been used in scholarship, for the general public, and in marketing to define and discuss social trends and understand behavior. The need to apply an intersectional lens to the concept is stressed. The eight chapters in the volume, each of which applies such a lens, are summarized. The particular relevance of gender and generation to the current Covid-19 pandemic is highlighted by the introduction and the chapters. Topics include transmission of and changes in gender attitudes and beliefs, generational differences in LGBTQ experiences, retirement and caregiving.

Details

Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Alex Opoku and Ninarita Williams

The eradication of gender discrimination at work has been a prominent feature of the UK political and business agenda for decades; however, the persistent business gender

Abstract

Purpose

The eradication of gender discrimination at work has been a prominent feature of the UK political and business agenda for decades; however, the persistent business gender leadership gap remains. The concept of second-generation gender bias has recently been proposed as the primary cause. This paper aims to evaluate how women experience second-generation gender bias in construction organisations. It examines key manifestations of second-generation gender bias and how it impacts women’s career progression into leadership positions in the UK construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a broad feminist interpretative lens aligned with the general aims of feminist critical inquiry through semi-structured interviews with 12 women experiencing career journeys of at least five years in the construction industry.

Findings

This paper reveals that second-generation gender bias hinders the career development and leadership identity of some women and the persistent business gender leadership gap is unlikely to change without addressing it.

Originality/value

There is little or no research that speaks exclusively to the experience of second-generation gender bias and female managers working within the UK construction. This paper provides further insight into the barriers women face when attempting to progress into senior management roles, particularly in construction.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Lene Foss, Kristin Woll and Mikko Moilanen

This paper uses a combination of organisation theory, gender theory and the work environment to study the generation and implementation of new ideas in organisations. How…

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3999

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses a combination of organisation theory, gender theory and the work environment to study the generation and implementation of new ideas in organisations. How do employees' perceptions of organisational structure and the work environment affect idea generation and implementation, and how does gender moderate this relationship?

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops and tests a structural equation model using data from a survey of a large Norwegian energy corporation. Survey items are measured using five-point scales and show good internal consistency levels. Exploratory factor analyses are used to ensure internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses are used to assess the fit of the model. Convergent and discriminant validity tests are also performed. Common method bias and invariance are evaluated across the female and male samples.

Findings

The theoretical model had a better fit for the male sample than the female sample, indicating that men's innovations were better captured than women's. The relationship between creativity and implementation is moderated by gender: women's ideas are not implemented to the same degree as men's. Work pressure has a positive effect on creativity; support from colleagues affects both idea generation and implementation, though support from managers does not.

Research limitations/implications

The study has the usual limitations of cross-sectional surveys. The findings confirm that the two phases of the innovation process (idea generation and implementation) depend on similar intrinsic motivational factors in the work environment. However, implementing ideas also depends on decision-making authority.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of how to increase innovative potential among employees. Employees should be given decision-making authority and work in an environment with supportive colleagues. The gendered findings in the study indicate that more attention should be paid to women's innovations in male-dominated corporations.

Originality/value

The study integrates research from disciplines that traditionally do not communicate into one theoretical framework to explore the conditions for employee-driven innovation. The findings highlight the need for developing gender-neutral innovation measures and understanding context-embedding innovation processes.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Callum S. Boyd, Elaine L. Ritch, Christopher A. Dodd and Julie McColl

to examine consumers' perceptions of retail brand representations of gender-oriented and/or sexuality-oriented identities. The authors explore the value of developing more…

Abstract

Purpose

to examine consumers' perceptions of retail brand representations of gender-oriented and/or sexuality-oriented identities. The authors explore the value of developing more progressive, inclusive brand values to support more effective retail brand communications and imagery.

Design/methodology/approach

Photo elicitation, utilising LGBTQIA+/sexuo-gendered imagery from retail brand marketing communications, facilitated discussion within focus groups representing various genders, age generations and sexualities.

Findings

Younger generations indicate a preference for fluid gender and sexuality and endorse retail brands that represent this progressive understanding. Gender and age moderate preferences for representative imagery, with older males more resistant to sexuo-gendered messages and females of all ages more accepting.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in generalisability, geography and demographics. The focussed approach did, however, enable collection of rich, insightful data to underpin evaluations of communicative brand values.

Practical implications

The inclusion of diverse and fluid sexuo-gendered identities within the brand values of retailers would enable effective targeting of consumers across a range of more traditional cohorts.

Social implications

The evolving ideology towards inclusiveness, identified within the generational cohorts, demonstrates social change through progressive acceptance of more fluid gendered and sexual identities.

Originality/value

The research adopts a novel approach to examining diverse, sexuo-gendered imagery within gendered and generational cohorts, offering qualitative examples of a progressive social ideology.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

G. J. Hodson

While women remain the majority of caregivers, gender parity is reported among Millennials, people of color, and LGBTQ caregivers. Such dynamics of care dyads are rarely…

Abstract

While women remain the majority of caregivers, gender parity is reported among Millennials, people of color, and LGBTQ caregivers. Such dynamics of care dyads are rarely explored in relationship with caregiver selection, social support, or care outcomes, and without standardized measures we are uncertain whether this trend is associated with youth, demographic changes, or a societal shift. Utilizing the Caregiving in the US 2015 data set, this exploratory, quantitative study examines relationships between gender, primary condition, and two social designations around age (kinship generations and birth cohorts) to develop a preliminary categorization of informal caregivers in the United States by reviewing descriptives and correlations, then testing with multivariate regression. A model combining Millennial caregivers, same-generation dyads, and two primary conditions (mental illness and stroke) successfully predicts variance as to whether a dyad will comprise one woman caring for another woman, the most common dyad. Findings demonstrate the interconnectedness of caregiving generational models, suggesting that categorizing dyads from such variables is viable. This study deepens inquiry into intergenerational caregiving and makes a case for generationality and caregiving to be studied together.

Details

Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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