The purpose of this paper is to assess whether China’s public sector can continue to generate advanced genetically modified (GM) technologies that will be competitive in…
The purpose of this paper is to assess whether China’s public sector can continue to generate advanced genetically modified (GM) technologies that will be competitive in the market.
The authors investigated all the research teams that have been conducting research projects under the variety development special program. The data collected include detail information on research capacity, research areas, performance, and process of their research projects. Based on the survey data, the authors assessed the innovations and progress of the variety development special program.
Unlike other countries, most GM products in China are developed by public research institutes. There is rising concern on the ability of China’s public sector to continuously generate indigenous GM technology that can compete with multinational companies. The study surveyed 197 research institutes and 487 research teams and found that the GM program in China lacks coordination: researchers do not want to share their research materials with others. Due to the lack of coordination, most of the hundreds of research teams often worked independently in the year 2008-2010. Moreover, the authors found the lack of coordination may be due to the reason that the interests of researchers are not well protected. This paper also provided the recent progress and policy changes of GM program in China, and it found that the efficiency in the later three years improved a lot. In order to establish a competitive national public GM research system, China should continuously consolidate and integrate the upstream, midstream, and downstream activities of the whole GM innovation process. China’s public sector may also need to work more closely with both the domestic and international private sectors.
This paper is a comprehensive analysis on the development of transgenic technology in China. The results of this paper can provide evidence for the dynamic adjustment of the policies in the variety development special program and can also provide reference for the future assessment of the variety development special program.
The Agricultural and Food Research Council has recently published its first Corporate Plan which describes the Council's strategy until 1988. This outlines the current situation and the implications that the changes in funding will have for the research programme and the structure of the Agricultural and Food Research Service.
This paper describes the field of biotechnology and likely advances in health care, agricultural and other applications in industry, environmental science and energy over…
This paper describes the field of biotechnology and likely advances in health care, agricultural and other applications in industry, environmental science and energy over the next 15 years. The intent is to give those without a background in the life sciences a perspective of the broad scope of biotechnology. The forecasts at the end of each section illustrate some advances as well as some of the benefits and risks to society that might occur during the next 15 years.
“Consumerism”, for want of a better description, is given to the mass of statutory control (which shows no sign of declining) of standards, trading justice to the consumer, means of redress to those who have been misled and defrauded, advice to those in doubt; and to the widespread movement, mostly in the Western world, to achieve these ends.
The issue of cloned food labeling came to the forefront on January 15, 2008, with the release of a controversial report by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This…
The issue of cloned food labeling came to the forefront on January 15, 2008, with the release of a controversial report by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This paper aims to explore issues surrounding cloned food sources, specifically the increasingly vocal demands by the American public for mandatory labeling.
This paper reviews literature to examine the culture and structure of the FDA over the past ten years. Ethical, economic and public health concerns surrounding cloned food sources are also examined. Comparisons are made to the shared history of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Political process and implementation of the Cloned Food Labeling Act (S. 414) are explored.
The FDA faces legal and cultural pressure to speed medications to market. The processes created by this struggle also affect the regulation of agriculture; this can be seen in the similar histories of GMOs and cloned food. Ethical issues surrounding cloned food labeling include animal welfare and the usurpation of the creator's role. Other ethical issues are entwined in health and economic concerns. Health issues include the capacity of the FDA to track allergic reactions and the possibility of future protein abnormalities among consumers. Environmental and herd health are identified as more global health concerns.
The combined economics of the biotech cloning and agricultural industries invert the usual law of supply and demand. This economic dynamic may either hurt small farmers or potentially benefit those who eschew cloning due to ethical or financial constraints. The current political climate exerts an interesting dynamic on the cloned food labeling debate. Consumer issues are pushed aside in the excitement of a new administration and more pressing issues such as the recessed economy. Biotech industries have the ability to maintain focus in the midst of distracting national issues; however, legislative opponents may have newfound strength with a majority congress.
Functioning as an historical overview and theoretical framework for those studying cloned food safety and labeling issues, this paper is useful in engendering ethical discussions. It also highlights the need for statistical and public health research on cloned food safety.
In this article our objective is to do a very deep analysis into biobusinesses and bioethics in order to identify holistic views concerning business enterprises in…
In this article our objective is to do a very deep analysis into biobusinesses and bioethics in order to identify holistic views concerning business enterprises in biopharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. We are arguing that biobusinesses and biotechnologies are not error free because in reality bio‐technoscientific discoveries and breakthroughs are not viewed as holistic real “natural logic”. They are “techno‐scientific logic”. Through a biosophical deliberation, if we believe that there is a difference between “natural logic” and “scientific logic”, then we may conclude that there are erroneous thoughts which exist and if existence is based on thinking, then false thoughts are as “real” as any misunderstanding among bio‐techno‐scientists and practitioners may thus end up with global catastrophes. Through a biosophical logic, we may choose both paths of “natural logic” and “scientific logic” in order to arrive in a real consensus conclusion. In addition, in this article we have examined the Promethean biosophical and biophilia perceptions and practices of global biopharmaceutical industries and biotechological businesses concerning bioethics.
The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…
The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.
In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.
Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.
Animal production is still a major UK industry of about £10 billion and like all aspects of agriculture faces a number of challenges. The biotechnology revolution is also sweeping through the industry with a range of major emerging technologies becoming available. Describes these technologies and discusses their potential impact on the agro‐food industry and the public. Although the issues raised appear at first sight novel, they can be regulated under the current framework available within the UK; public concern over some of the technologies is genuine but in most cases can be answered. Currently research in the UK puts this country at the forefront of these technologies and the emerging commercial opportunities must not be lost.
The Report of the Committee on the Ethics of Genetic Modification andFood Use was published in September 1993. The use of genetic engineeringfor food use has received a…
The Report of the Committee on the Ethics of Genetic Modification and Food Use was published in September 1993. The use of genetic engineering for food use has received a lot of media and welfare group attention. Addresses emerging ethical issues which affect many societal groups. Information, education and labelling are key factors in the public′s understanding and acceptance of foods produced by this technology. The recommendations of the report have resulted in the Food Advisory Committee (FAC) proposals for labelling products of gene technology. These will not go far enough to satisfy all those who made submissions to the Committee on Ethics. There is a gap between the public′s perception of science and the evidence presented by the biotechnology researchers. The effectiveness of any decisions on labelling hinges not only on more detailed labelling but on bridging the gap between the conflicting interests of scientists and societal welfare groups, so that consumers can make informed choices based on facts.
In years past, when life seemed simpler and the Law much less complicated, jurists were fond of quoting the age‐old saying: “All men are equal before the Law.” It was never completely true; there were important exemptions when strict legal enforcement would have been against the public interests. A classic example was Crown immunity, evolved from the historical principle that “The King can do no wrong”. With the growth of government, the multiplicity of government agencies and the enormous amount of secondary legislation, the statutes being merely enabling Acts, this immunity revealed itself as being used largely against public interests. Statutory instruments were being drafted within Ministerial departments largely by as many as 300 officers of those departments authorized to sign such measures, affecting the rights of the people without any real Parliamentary control. Those who suffered and lost in their enforcement had no remedy; Crown immunity protected all those acting as servants of the Crown and the principle came to be an officials' charter with no connection whatever with the Crown. Parliament, custodian of the national conscience, removed much of this socially unacceptable privilege in the Crown Proceedings Act, 1947, which enabled injured parties within limit to sue central departments and their officers. The more recent system of Commissioners—Parliamentary, Local Authority, Health Service—with power to enquire into allegations of injustice, maladministration, malpractice to individuals extra‐legally, has extended the rights of the suffering citizen.