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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Edith Mukudi Omwami

Issues of women’s education and empowerment of women have been incorporated in the framing of the role of women in international development from the 1970s, primarily as a…

Abstract

Issues of women’s education and empowerment of women have been incorporated in the framing of the role of women in international development from the 1970s, primarily as a response to the liberal feminist movement agenda of the time. This analysis examines the degree to which liberal feminism and liberal feminist theory is reflected in comparative education scholarship in the lead up to and beyond the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The analysis first explores the underpinnings of liberal feminism, which constitutes the ideal embedded in development education for girls and women. It follows up with a reflection on the literature in the field of comparative education that reference liberal feminism framework and feminist theory in exploring educational issues and ways in which the theory is located in the research. Illustration of examples that demonstrate the limits of liberal feminism as a theoretical framework and barriers to the use of liberal feminist theory as an ideological guide are captured in the findings. The search is limited to the six dominant scholarly outlets in the field of comparative education; namely Comparative Education Review (CER), Comparative Education (CE), Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education (Compare), Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Prospects), International Review of Education (IRE), and the International Journal of Educational Development (IJED). Only works that explicitly mention liberal feminism/liberal feminist perspectives are included in the analysis. This research contributes to the acknowledgement of the liberal feminist theory in development education and for the field of comparative education. It will also help with understanding the politics of ideology and representation in scholarship and development interventions.

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Birgit Weyer

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a theoretical explanation for the persistence of the glass ceiling keeping women from assuming leadership positions.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a theoretical explanation for the persistence of the glass ceiling keeping women from assuming leadership positions.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach of this paper is to compare and contrast social role theory and expectation states theory as theoretical underpinnings to explain the persistence of a glass ceiling for women leaders.

Findings

Both social role theory and expectation states theory belong to the structural/cultural models describing differences between the genders. Social role theory and expectation states theory explicate diverse reasons for the emergence of these differences. However, both theories propose that gender differences will result in evaluation bias against women.

Practical implications

As a result of evaluation bias against women, the glass ceiling phenomenon keeping women from assuming top leadership positions continues to occur.

Originality/value

This paper is being written on the 20 year anniversary of the term glass ceiling being coined. It adds to the body of literature by closely examining two structural/cultural theories as possible causes to an invisible barrier which keeps women leaders from entering top level management positions.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Kristy Holtfreter

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

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2717

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior research is reviewed and critiques of general and gender-specific explanations for offending in the workplace context are advanced.

Findings

Gender-specific explanations in other offending contexts (e.g. violent crime) appear to be less applicable to the understanding of white-collar crime, a finding that lends support to general theory.

Practical implications

This paper provides an outline for future research testing criminological theory in organizational settings.

Originality/value

This paper represents a unique attempt to apply general and gender-specific theories to a variety of financial crimes in the context of organizations.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Shelley J. Correll and Stephen Benard

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional…

Abstract

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional change in recent decades. Two classes of explanations that have been offered as partial explanations of persistent gender inequality include economic theories of statistical discrimination and social psychological theories of status-based discrimination. Despite the fact that the two theories offer explanations for the same phenomena, little effort has been made to compare them, and practitioners of one theory are often unfamiliar with the other. In this article, we assess both theories. We argue that the principal difference between the two theories lies in the mechanism by which discrimination takes place: discrimination in statistical models derives from an informational bias, while discrimination in status models derives from a cognitive bias. We also consider empirical assessments of both explanations, and find that while research has generally been more supportive of status theories than statistical theories, statistical theories have been more readily evoked as explanations for gender inequalities in the paid labor market. We argue that status theories could be more readily applied to understanding gender inequality by adopting the broader conception of performance favored by statistical discrimination theories. The goal is to build on the strong empirical base of status characteristic theory, but draw on statistical discrimination theories to extend its ability to explain macro level gender inequalities.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Ayala Malach‐Pines and Oshrit Kaspi‐Baruch

The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus…

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4874

Abstract

Purpose

The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA model) and three that focused on gender (evolutionary theory, social role theory and social construction theory). The five theories have contradictory predictions about the relative influence of culture and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven hundred and forty‐seven MBA students (390 male and 357 female and approximately 100 in each country) responded to a self‐report measure that was assembled especially for the purpose of the study.

Findings

The findings showed large cross‐cultural differences and small gender differences in the influences and aspirations associated with a career choice in management.

Research limitations/implications

The findings support Hofstede's research and social construction theory, which predicted the cross‐cultural differences. They provide some support for social role theory, which predicted both gender and cross‐cultural differences, and very limited support for evolutionary theory, which predicted large and universal gender differences, and for the application of Schneider's ASA model, which predicted no cross‐cultural differences.

Originality/value

The findings are important in light of the small percentage of women in top management positions and the view of an MBA as means for breaking through the glass ceiling into top management. The findings can be translated to recommendations for encouraging women's entry into management.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Pulin Goyal, Sanjay Bhattacharya and Aradhana Gandhi

The purpose of this study is to apply grounded theory in management research in the context of gender-based pay disparity and showcase the applicability of the method in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to apply grounded theory in management research in the context of gender-based pay disparity and showcase the applicability of the method in deriving a new theory toward describing the factors responsible for the slow career advancement of women compared to men across various employment sectors. This study is focused mainly in the northern part of India.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted across participants chosen by purposive sampling. Data were collected through in-depth interviews after taking informed consent with an inclusion criterion of some years of work experience. Grounded theory method was used to analyze the data found through qualitative research.

Findings

Through the grounded theory research method, an in-depth understanding of factors responsible for pay disparity as faced by women at work has emerged. Also, factors responsible for the slow career advancement of women employees viz. social construct of gender, workplace representation of gender, perceptions/perspectives of managers regarding genders, lack of multi-step affirmative actions have also emerged from the data.

Practical implications

Greater understanding has been gained toward the applicability of grounded theory as a method for expounding various aspects of management and theorizing them.

Originality/value

This particular work showcases the intent and applicability of the grounded theory research method in management research by studying gender-based pay disparity. Through this method, barriers faced by women in pay parity across various employment sectors in the northern part of India were ascertained, leading to the emergence of various probable solutions as well.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Susan R. Madsen and Robbyn T. Scribner

There is still a lack of understanding why there is little progress when it comes to women seeking and obtaining top management and leadership positions in organizations…

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3020

Abstract

Purpose

There is still a lack of understanding why there is little progress when it comes to women seeking and obtaining top management and leadership positions in organizations today, and this is particularly true within the cross-cultural and international management and leadership contexts. One step forward, however, is to understand current work and trends in research and theory to identify these gaps. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recently published literature on the role of gender in management teams within and across cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

This content analysis has examined the most recent literature (i.e. January 1, 2010 to March 1, 2016) in 15 influential academic journals within the cross-cultural and international management field. The study has analyzed 152 primary and 85 secondary articles that met the strict criteria of the study.

Findings

Results include findings on journals/articles, gender of authors, countries included in data collection, constructs measured, tone of manuscripts (i.e. adverse outcomes associated with gender compared to the neutral/mixed or positive effects), and the theoretical frameworks utilized in the articles.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis will be useful for researchers, theorists, and practitioners in understanding the current knowledge base and in discovering the emerging gaps and needs.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind within gender and cross-cultural/international management. The findings clearly show gaps in research and theory that will help guide future work.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2013

Jill Blackmore

This chapter will explore how different feminist theories and theorists have informed what counts as research, what is defined as a research issue, and methodological…

Abstract

This chapter will explore how different feminist theories and theorists have informed what counts as research, what is defined as a research issue, and methodological approaches to research in higher education. It will consider the theoretical and methodological tools feminist academics have mobilized in order to develop more powerful explanations of how gender and other forms of difference work in the relation to the positioning of the individual, higher education and the nation state within globalized economies. It pays particular regard to the feminist political project of social justice.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-682-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Stephan Raaijmakers, Inge Bleijenbergh, Brigit Fokkinga and Max Visser

This paper aims to challenge the alleged gender-neutral character of Argyris and Schön’s theory of organizational learning (1978). While theories in organizational science…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to challenge the alleged gender-neutral character of Argyris and Schön’s theory of organizational learning (1978). While theories in organizational science seem gender neutral at the surface, a closer analysis reveals they are often based on men’s experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the method of gender subtext analysis, centering on gendering and its interaction with gender, class and race.

Findings

The dichotomous learning scheme of Argyris and Schön, in which a limited learning approach with alleged masculine values and interaction styles is opposed to an ideal learning approach with feminine values and interaction styles, is related to Bendl’s subtexts of feminization and of unconscious exclusion and neglect in organizational theories. To overcome the binary character of the theory, a gradient and contextualized approach to organizational learning is proposed.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to apply gender subtext analysis to theories of organizational learning and, thus, to analyze their gender subtext.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Nirbhaya, New Media and Digital Gender Activism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-529-8

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