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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Pascale Benoliel, Haim Shaked, Nehama Nadav and Chen Schechter

Relying on information processing and attribution theories, which relate to the formation of leadership perceptions and attributes, the current study seeks to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on information processing and attribution theories, which relate to the formation of leadership perceptions and attributes, the current study seeks to examine the relationship between demographic variables and principals' systems thinking (PST) in an integrated model. The present study purpose was threefold: first, the study seeks to examine whether attributions middle leaders make about PST may show substantial and systematic variance in a management team. Second, the study seeks to investigate the influence of principal–middle leaders’ relational demography variables (gender, education and tenure) (dis)similarity on middle leaders’ PST attribute. Finally, the study seeks to explore the moderating role of duration of principal- principal–middle leader acquaintance in the relationship of demographic (dis)similarity to PST.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 305 dyads (middle leaders and their principals) from 101 schools. MANOVA analysis and hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis.

Findings

Findings showed that it is both appropriate and important to examine group-level effects when studying PST effects. Also, PST levels were higher in gender-similar relationships than in gender-dissimilar ones. Finally, duration of acquaintance was found to moderate the relationship between principal–middle leaders’ gender (dis)similarity and PST appraisal.

Originality/value

Focusing on principal–middle leader relationships, which are explicitly relational, with a consideration for level relationships may potentially highlight the need to consider multiple levels of analysis in order to understand how PST attribution occurs. This focus can help us to capture the core of PST social dynamics among the dyad, as well as highlighting the distinction, if any, between in-groups and out-groups. Acknowledging that school faculty are motivated by their interpersonal relationships with their principals and how such relationships are contingent upon demography (dis)similarity and the duration of acquaintance between dyads may help to broaden the understanding regarding potential antecedents of middle leaders' PST attribution and its implication for school organizations.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Cynthia L. Gramm, John F. Schnell and Elizabeth W. Weatherly

This study's purpose is to investigate the antecedents of an employee's remedy‐seeking behavioral intentions in response to wrongful dismissal.

Abstract

Purpose

This study's purpose is to investigate the antecedents of an employee's remedy‐seeking behavioral intentions in response to wrongful dismissal.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses generated by two paradigms are tested, the similarity‐attraction and the similarity‐betrayal paradigms, using Tobit regression and data from a scenario‐based survey of employees.

Findings

Consistent with the similarity‐attraction paradigm, the management team's racial and deep‐level similarity to the employee both were negatively related to the employee's propensity to consult a lawyer. Consistent with the similarity‐betrayal paradigm, the employee's propensity to consult a lawyer increased with the supervisor's deep‐level similarity to the employee; among men, the propensity to complain to regulatory agencies increased with the management team's gender similarity and the propensity to not seek a remedy declined with the supervisor's gender similarity.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include the use a single‐source, cross‐sectional, convenience sample; the small size and heterogeneity of the non‐white sub‐sample; and the limited number of control variables. Future research should explore whether the findings are robust when tested using alternative types of data; alternative wrongful dismissal scenarios; a more extensive set of controls for organizational, job, and personal characteristics; and larger, more diverse sub‐samples of non‐whites.

Practical implications

Organizations should manage dismissals in a manner that encourages employees to favor internal remedy‐seeking over external remedy‐seeking options.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate the antecedents of a wrongfully dismissed employee's propensity to engage in internal as well as external remedy‐seeking and to explore the effects of management's similarity to the employee on the employee's remedy‐seeking actions.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2016

Cynthia L. Gramm and John F. Schnell

We investigate the effects of management-employee similarity on mistreated employees’ propensities to engage in legal and organizational claiming, to quit, and to not seek…

Abstract

Purpose

We investigate the effects of management-employee similarity on mistreated employees’ propensities to engage in legal and organizational claiming, to quit, and to not seek a remedy in ongoing employment relationships.

Methodology/approach

We test hypotheses generated by the similarity-attraction and similarity-betrayal paradigms using Tobit regression and data from vignette-based employee surveys.

Findings

Mistreated employees with same-sex supervisors are more likely to initiate legal claims and to quit than those with opposite-sex supervisors, but less likely to initiate legal claims and to quit when they have a same-race supervisor than when they have a different-race supervisor. The effects of management-employee similarity on mistreated employees’ remedy-seeking responses exhibit asymmetries by gender and by race. The presence of same-race supervisors or other managers appears to diminish the greater reluctance of nonwhite employees, compared to white employees, to use organizational claiming mechanisms.

Originality/value

We know of no prior published research that has investigated the determinants of employees’ propensities to engage in multiple forms of remedy seeking, as well as the propensity to not seek a remedy, in response to plausibly illegal mistreatment not involving dismissal.

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Isabel Metz and Alan Simon

The purpose of this paper is to propose a shift in emphasis from gender differences to gender similarities in the explanations of the findings of future gender in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a shift in emphasis from gender differences to gender similarities in the explanations of the findings of future gender in management research. The results from a study in a major Australian bank help build the case. Such a focus on gender similarities (FGS) hopefully will bring about positive organizational change that might stimulate an increase in women's representation in senior management in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

To make a case for the proposed FGS approach the paper uses results from a survey of 178 senior managers and interviews with 14 executives in one Australian bank. The paper draws on the masculine culture and organizational silence literatures to explain how women and men in senior management can have similar work experiences and hold similar views of their organizations.

Findings

The paper finds that male and female respondents held similarly unfavorable views of the organization's culture, but men felt constrained in raising concerns. Most executives would welcome a change of culture.

Research limitations/implications

The research study in banking is included specifically to show how the proposed FGS approach works in gender in management research. A limitation of the study is the small interview sample. The finding on men's silence is particularly pertinent to the argument for organizational change that benefits the whole organization, not just women.

Practical implications

The FGS approach broadens the appeal of change for organizations. For example, by applying the FGS approach to the study in banking, the principal message for organizations would be that there is widespread dissatisfaction with the outdated command‐and control management style, extremely long hours, and lack of work‐life balance. Organizations are more likely to address findings of “widespread dissatisfaction” than of dissatisfaction in a section of the workforce (e.g. women).

Originality/value

The recognition that a shift in the approach to the study of gender in management is needed to stimulate organizational change that might increase women's representation in senior management. The study shows how men will also benefit from this shift in emphasis, because the explanations and recommendations emanating from future research using the FGS approach will give men a much needed voice to raise issues that are similar to those raised by their female colleagues.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hassan Abu Bakar and Robert M. McCann

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at earlier time periods in a work group’s development. Additionally, this research examines whether deep-level perceived similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a work group’s development. The relationship between shared cultural context and perceived and actual similarity is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This research analyzes longitudinal data from the study questionnaires at five occasions in a Malaysian organization.

Findings

Results based on a sample of 28 group projects and 141 matching dyad who completed the study questionnaires at 5 occasions reveal that there is no interaction between workgroup relational ethnicity and workgroup relational gender with leader-member dyadic agreement at early time periods in a workgroup’s development. Therefore, H1 is not supported. H2 posited that deep-level perceived similarity will interact with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a workgroup’s development. H2 is supported. Results reveal that the interaction between leader-member dyadic communication agreement and perceived similarity explains 36 percent of the variance of perceived group members’ performance ratings. This is after accounting for the control variable and the independent variables. From a cultural standpoint, the findings in this study underscore that conversations based on the Malaysian cultural norm of “budi” reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that this shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity between ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians, and also both genders in the Malaysian workplace.

Research limitations/implications

Leader-member dyadic communication agreement reflects the social appropriateness and relationship quality between individuals, as well as the context of the leader-member workgroup interactions. The findings of this study underscore the premise that conversations reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity. This study specifically examines the role of ethnicity in Malaysia organizational workgroup (e.g. ethnic Malay, Chinese Malay, and Indian Malay) as well as gender.

Originality/value

This study systematically examines the influence of actual and perceived similarity in leader-member dyadic communication from a longitudinal and multilevel standpoint.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Tulay Girard and Musa Pinar

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used to capture student presentation evaluation scores and perceptions of gender differences in various aspects of presentation quality.

Findings

Findings indicate that gender of evaluators or presenters did not have any significant effect on presentation scores. The survey of student perceptions of gender effect on student presentations indicate that while female students seem to be perceived as better presenters than male students, the study found no consistent patterns of gender effect on presentation evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

Only four evaluation criteria were used to measure presentation quality.

Originality/value

The results of this exploratory study uses the actual presentation evaluations and survey of student perceptions suggesting that student inputs can be included for grading without any concern of gender bias on grading.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

G. Ronald Gilbert, Meredith F. Burnett, Ian Phau and Jerry Haar

The purpose of this study is to examine the degree to which differences and similarities exist between female and male business professionals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the degree to which differences and similarities exist between female and male business professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,164 students from three English‐speaking countries completed a 75‐item multi‐dimensional tool that consists of 17 empirically independent work preference constructs associated with psychological learning styles, work values, work interests, and personality temperament.

Findings

There are few notable or significant differences between the work preferences of female and male business professionals within each country. Differences between the work preferences of female and male business professionals are not consistent from nation to nation.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research on gender differences of work preferences needs to include larger samples of college students majoring in non‐business subjects as well as working adults drawn from related occupational fields.

Practical implications

Managers need to understand that biological sex may be irrelevant when it comes to the selection, placement, training, development, and appraisal of employees.

Originality/value

Contrary to prior research, the results refute the existence of work‐related differences between females and males.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

Jane Z. Sojka, Ashok K. Gupta and Dawn R. Deeter‐Schmelz

To enhance our understanding of the optimal buyer‐seller dyad composition in different cultures, this study investigates differences in male and female buyers’ perceptions…

Abstract

To enhance our understanding of the optimal buyer‐seller dyad composition in different cultures, this study investigates differences in male and female buyers’ perceptions of male and female sales representatives in Pakistan. Data collected from 88 Pakistani buyers reveal that although male and female salespeople were perceived somewhat differently depending on the buyer’s gender, many similarities were also found. In addition, buyers did not perceive salespeople of the same gender more positively than salespeople of the opposite gender. Most of the male buyers did not perceive sales to be an appropriate career for Pakistani women. Overall, the results suggest female Pakistani sales representatives are more relationship‐oriented, and some male Pakistani buyers may prefer working with female salespeople.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Philipp Schäpers, Leon Windscheid, Jens Mazei, Meinald T. Thielsch and Guido Hertel

How diversity in management boards affects employer attractiveness has yet to be fully clarified. This paper aims to contrast the two main theoretical rationales …

Abstract

Purpose

How diversity in management boards affects employer attractiveness has yet to be fully clarified. This paper aims to contrast the two main theoretical rationales – similarity attraction and diversity attraction – and examines whether potential employees are more attracted to an organization with a homogenous board (in terms of gender and ethnicity) or to an organization with a diverse board.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (N = 629) were simultaneously presented with two pictures of management boards, whereby the gender and ethnic composition of the boards were manipulated. Moreover, to examine whether social desirability influences the ratings of an organization’s attractiveness, survey anonymity was varied using an indirect questioning technique.

Findings

The findings supported the diversity attraction rationale: organizations with gender-balanced, multicultural boards were seen as more attractive than organizations with monolithic boards. However, this effect seemed to be influenced – at least partially – by social desirability.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research is needed to examine the extents to which people care about the degree of similarity between themselves and a management board.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate board composition as an employer branding strategy. Specifically, the results indicate that an organization can benefit from a diverse management board when this information is communicated to applicants.

Social implications

People’s attitudes toward organizations with diverse boards seem – in part – to be rooted in their motivation to comply with social norms.

Originality/value

Theoretical accounts (similarity attraction theory vs diversity attraction) lead to somewhat contradicting predictions, and the available empirical evidence was rather indirect and correlational. This study provides a controlled empirical investigation contrasting the two contradicting predictions.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Anshul Tripathi, Umesh Kumar Bamel, Happy Paul, David Gordon and Nisha Bamel

This paper aims to understand the relationships of complementary specialization, cognitive trust, affective trust, tie strength and similarity with group formation intention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the relationships of complementary specialization, cognitive trust, affective trust, tie strength and similarity with group formation intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The data have been collected from 30 management students from a batch of 110 students of a premiere Indian business school. To assess the proposed relationship, multiple hierarchical regression was performed on collected data by using SPSS© 20.

Findings

The obtained results exhibited cognitive trust, affective trust and tie strength as significant predictors of dyadic group formation intention, whereas similarity and complementary specialization were not found.

Originality/value

The research on group formation is limited, and more particularly the functions of the above-mentioned factors on the group formation intentions of management graduates are yet to generalize. Therefore, present research is an early approach which tries to address the mentioned gap from a social network perspective and considers the group formation and social network literature.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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