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Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.Methodology/Approach: This chapter will…
Purpose: To consider the extent to which the legal recognition of non-binary gender has the potential to disrupt the gender binary.
Methodology/Approach: This chapter will employ case study as method, focusing on recent changes to Australian law and policy, which introduce a third gender category. I rely on the work of queer theorists on normativity and recognition as a theoretical framework and on the work of social scientists on transgender people as evidence.
Findings: This chapter finds that while there is much to be celebrated about increasing alternatives to the dominant categories of male and female, the legal recognition of non-binary gender may in fact serve to conceptually purge the dominant gender categories of non-conforming elements while simultaneously masking the ways in which institutions of regulatory power continue to demand conformity with normative standards of gender.
Research Limitations: Since few non-binary individuals in Australia have adopted the X marker the implications laid out in this paper are speculative. The experiences of non-binary individuals present an important avenue for further research.
Practical Implications: I recommend, as an alternative to further gender classifications, that we should seek to minimize the degree to which membership of a particular gender category is used to distribute rights and privileges.
Originality/Value of Paper: This chapter advances the literature on non-binary gender, contributes to existing queer and feminist analyses of the gender binary and extends work on normativity to legal recognition of alternative genders.
Nowadays, the speech emotion recognition (SER) model has enhanced as the main research topic in various fields including human–computer interaction as well as speech…
Nowadays, the speech emotion recognition (SER) model has enhanced as the main research topic in various fields including human–computer interaction as well as speech processing. Generally, it focuses on utilizing the models of machine learning for predicting the exact emotional status from speech. The advanced SER applications go successful in affective computing and human–computer interaction, which is making as the main component of computer system's next generation. This is because the natural human machine interface could grant the automatic service provisions, which need a better appreciation of user's emotional states.
This paper implements a new SER model that incorporates both gender and emotion recognition. Certain features are extracted and subjected for classification of emotions. For this, this paper uses deep belief network DBN model.
Through the performance analysis, it is observed that the developed method attains high accuracy rate (for best case) when compared to other methods, and it is 1.02% superior to whale optimization algorithm (WOA), 0.32% better from firefly (FF), 23.45% superior to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and 23.41% superior to genetic algorithm (GA). In case of worst scenario, the mean update of particle swarm and whale optimization (MUPW) in terms of accuracy is 15.63, 15.98, 16.06% and 16.03% superior to WOA, FF, PSO and GA, respectively. Under the mean case, the performance of MUPW is high, and it is 16.67, 10.38, 22.30 and 22.47% better from existing methods like WOA, FF, PSO, as well as GA, respectively.
This paper presents a new model for SER that aids both gender and emotion recognition. For the classification purpose, DBN is used and the weight of DBN is used and this is the first work uses MUPW algorithm for finding the optimal weight of DBN model.
Gender is a defining feature of informal/precarious work in the twenty-first century, yet studies rarely adopt a gendered lens when examining collective efforts to…
Gender is a defining feature of informal/precarious work in the twenty-first century, yet studies rarely adopt a gendered lens when examining collective efforts to challenge informality and precarity. This chapter foregrounds the gendered dimensions of informal/precarious workers’ struggles as a crucial starting point for re-theorizing the future of global labor movements. Drawing upon the findings of the volume’s six chapters spanning five countries (the United States, Canada, South Korea, Mexico, and India) and two gender-typed sectors (domestic work and construction), this chapter explores how gender is intertwined into informal/precarious workers’ movements, why gender is addressed, and to what end. Across countries and sectors, informal/precarious worker organizations are on the front lines of challenging the multiple forms of gendered inequalities that shape contemporary practices of accumulation and labor regulation. They expose the forgotten reality that class structures not only represent classification struggles around work, but also around social identities, such as gender, race, and migration status. However, these organizing efforts are not fighting to transform the gendered division of labor or embarking on revolutionary struggles to overturn private ownership and liberalized markets. Nonetheless, these struggles are making major transformations in terms of increasing women’s leadership and membership in labor movements and exposing how gender interacts with other ascriptive identities to shape work. They are also radicalizing hegemonic scripts of capitalist accumulation, development, and even gender to attain recognition for female-dominated occupations and reproductive needs for the first time ever. These outcomes are crucial as sources of emancipatory transformations at a time when state and public support for labor and social protection is facing a deep assault stemming from the pressures of transnational production and globalizing markets.
Purpose/approach: This introduction provides an overview of the themes and chapters of this volume.Research implications: The chapters in this volume present original…
Purpose/approach: This introduction provides an overview of the themes and chapters of this volume.
Research implications: The chapters in this volume present original research employing empirical and textual methods illustrating the complex responses and policy challenges posed by contemporary understandings and misunderstandings of the nature of gender. Various forms of gender panic and responses to it within individuals, institutions, national states, and the world society are explored.
Practical and social implications: Research demonstrates that gender panic can lead to potentially harmful reactions and fruitless policies that reinforce rather than dismantle the gender binary, thereby, impacting vulnerable members of societies.
Value of the chapter: The chapter and the volume are intended to illustrate the nature of current gender panics and related policies and to encourage further scholarship with the goal of promoting greater understanding as well as developing constructive solutions to issues raised.
Why do women’s ambitions wane? After an historic 50-year climb to unprecedented educational and career heights, many best-selling books, viral articles, and research…
Why do women’s ambitions wane? After an historic 50-year climb to unprecedented educational and career heights, many best-selling books, viral articles, and research studies are telling us that the aspirations and confidence of today’s women often abate. These readings offer explanations such as workplace biases and family responsibilities for the ebb of ambition; yet, all fail to identify the underlying unifying problem that explains choices women make to step off the upward fast tracks in favor of different work and life paths. The problem is that the workplace is not a reliable site of recognition for women. Without the positive feedback of appropriate recognition from an appreciative community, women’s ambitions and the intensity with which they are pursued tilt elsewhere. Women’s movement into and embrace of entrepreneurship provide a clear illustration of one way women are designing the workplace to support the maintenance of their ambitions.
Systematic oppression and marginalization of queer (sometimes also referred to as LGBTQ) people has affected all aspects of U.S. society, including education at all…
Systematic oppression and marginalization of queer (sometimes also referred to as LGBTQ) people has affected all aspects of U.S. society, including education at all levels. Despite the heavy policing of queer sexuality and gender both inside and outside higher education, these aspects of identity have been overlooked in educational policy. This paper discusses federal educational policy that affects queer students, faculty, and staff in higher education.
Discussion in this paper is informed by three guiding tenets: sexuality is both central and marginal to queer identities; trans* identities are both inclusive of and beyond those who are in the process of confirming their gender identity through hormones and/or surgery; discussion of educational policy must acknowledge queer theory’s utility and nonutility.
The status of queer people in colleges and universities is reviewed first. Then, challenges of developing policy to address queer issues are acknowledged, while also illustrating recent policy changes and judicial rulings that have positive implications for queer people in higher education.
The paper concludes by identifying remaining gaps and recommendations for future policy development, including the need for federal nondiscrimination laws that cover sexual and gender minorities and restructuring policies for queer inclusion.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the neglect of girls in care who come into conflict with the law, arguing that a gender-neutral approach in this area risks…
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the neglect of girls in care who come into conflict with the law, arguing that a gender-neutral approach in this area risks further marginalising an already vulnerable population.
A critical review of the literature and current policy climate is undertaken to explore what is known about the experiences of females in the justice system, as well as knowledge gaps.
Evidence on the prevalence and nature of offending by girls in care is limited. However, as looked after children, girls may be more likely to have their own behaviour unnecessarily criminalised. Whilst females and males share some prior experiences of victimisation and trauma, girls also have distinct needs and may be assessed and managed by state care and control systems in very different ways.
The paper is not based on primary research and does not present a systematic review of the literature.
The need to listen to girls and young women, and a far greater recognition of backgrounds of trauma must underpin future policy and practice. Diversion from the formal criminal justice system wherever possible is also a key goal to aspire to.
This paper focuses on the specific experiences of females. It calls for a gender-sensitive, trauma-informed approach to working with girls and women from the care system who come into conflict with the law, and questions the value of criminalising those whom the state previously deemed to be in need of welfare and support.
For the vast majority of cisgendered people who experience alignment between the sex they were assigned at birth, the body they have and their gender identity they are…
For the vast majority of cisgendered people who experience alignment between the sex they were assigned at birth, the body they have and their gender identity they are comfortable with (Schilt and Westbrook, 2009), the experience of trans people is a distant one. More of us share an experience of aging and the associated concerns about reduced independence, deterioration of health and increased need for care and support. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
For trans elders, the experience of aging has specific features that have a major impact on their lives if not understood, planned for and responded to appropriately. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study exploring trans peoples experiences, concerns and suggestions for how agencies providing elder care can better meet their expectations (Jones, 2013).
The research revealed low confidence in the ability of current aged care services to meet the needs of trans elders due to a limited understanding of the relationship between health and social care specific to trans people; undervaluing the networks in trans people’s lives; the need to demonstrate culturally competent services and real concerns regarding tackling discrimination and abuse. Despite legislative advancements, there was a sense that activism is central to tackling these issues and trans people are articulating their demands for shaping future provision. The research identifies a number of recommendations for care providers and future areas of research.
In response to identifying an absence of trans voices being heard on the subject of trans elder care, this study sought to understand expectations of services, amplify the voices of the participants and share the priorities they articulated to influence future service design and practice.