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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Sonja Mackenzie

Purpose: This paper presents an exploratory analysis of minority stress and resiliency processes among parents in LGBTQ families. The paper examines two unique minority

Abstract

Purpose: This paper presents an exploratory analysis of minority stress and resiliency processes among parents in LGBTQ families. The paper examines two unique minority stress processes – (1) parents experiencing sexual and/or gender minority stress due to the stigmatization of their own identities as individuals and (2) parents sharing the gender minority stress faced by their transgender and gender expansive (TGE) child, and in the context of their parent–child relationship.

Methodology: Between 2017 and 2018 in-depth, in-person qualitative interviews on the topics of gender, stress, and resilience were conducted with 12 parents in LGBTQ families. Audio recordings were transcribed and then open coded using ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software. Analyses of data were informed by critical intersectional theories that locate gender and sexuality within structures of social and racial oppression.

Findings: Interview data indicate that minority stress is experienced by parents experiencing sexual and/or gender minority stress due to the stigmatization of their own identities, as well as among parents sharing the gender minority stress faced by their TGE child in the context of their parent–child relationship. Parents described community resilience and minority coping through interpersonal, community, and institutional support. This paper provides evidence that sexual and gender minority stressors are enhanced and resiliency factors are reduced among those experiencing racism and economic disadvantage.

Research limitations: This is an exploratory study conducted with a small sample of parents in a specific geographic area.

Originality/Value: These data provide initial evidence to support further analyses of the dyadic minority stressors within parent–child relationships in LGBTQ families

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Russell Spiker, Lawrence Stacey and Corinne Reczek

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.…

Abstract

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.

Approach: First, we review theory on social class, gender, and sexuality, especially pertaining to health. Next, we review research on social class among SGM populations. Then, we review 42 studies of SGM population health that accounted for one or more components of social class. Finally, we suggest future directions for investigating social class as a fundamental driver of SGM health.

Findings: Social class and SGM stigma are both theorized as “fundamental causes” of health, yet most studies of SGM health do not rigorously theorize social class. A few studies control socioeconomic characteristics as mediators of SGM health disparities, but that approach obscures class disparities within SGM populations. Only two of 42 studies we reviewed examined SGM population health at the intersections of social class, gender, and sexuality.

Research implications: Researchers interested in SGM population health would benefit from explicitly stating their chosen theory and operationalization of social class. Techniques such as splitting samples by social class and statistical interactions can help illuminate how social class and SGM status intertwine to influence health.

Originality: We synthesize theory and research on social class, sexuality, and gender pertaining to health. In doing so, we hope to help future research more thoroughly account for social class as a factor shaping the lives and health of SGM people.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Emily S. Meadows

Heteronormativity and cisnormativity are dominant perspectives ensuring that social structures, including educational systems, operate with a bias for heterosexual…

Abstract

Heteronormativity and cisnormativity are dominant perspectives ensuring that social structures, including educational systems, operate with a bias for heterosexual, cisgender people. Gender and sexual minority (GSM) children worldwide attend schools where they are excluded and harassed because of their gender identity and/or sexuality. While many education professionals would not tolerate such discrimination perpetrated on the basis of minority ethnicity, race, or religion, relatively little attention is given to the marginalization of GSM students. The term ‘context paralysis’, coined here, describes a reluctance to engage with issues when the cultural context may make doing so difficult. Gender and sexuality are indeed sensitive and provocative topics, deeply connected to cultural norms and customs. However, to dismiss discrimination against GSM people in the name of local traditions is to be complicit in a tradition of bigotry. This chapter calls upon comparative and international education (CIE) scholars to employ their aptly nuanced training and expertise to elevate the visibility of issues barring GSM students from equal participation in school, to disseminate findings about effective interventions and policies that protect and support GSM students, and to interpret and adapt this research for application across cultural and geographic settings. Indeed, it is those in the field of CIE who may be best suited to carry out the sensitive implementation of educational research across borders and are, thus, particularly well-positioned to overcome context paralysis on behalf of GSM children worldwide.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Amy E. Hurley and Cristina M. Giannantonio

This study examined the career attainment of managerial women and minorities in an internal labor market. The interactive effects of age, gender, and race were examined on…

Abstract

This study examined the career attainment of managerial women and minorities in an internal labor market. The interactive effects of age, gender, and race were examined on the career attainment levels of women, African‐Americans, Asian‐Americans and Hispanics. A sample of 7,084 US managers was studied; 3,456 women and minority managers were compared to 3,628 white male managers who entered the firm in the same year and in the same department. Consistent with previous research, women and minorities experienced lower career attainment than white males in this sample. Results suggest that minority women do not experience the “double jeopardy” associated with belonging to two classes of protected characteristics; nor the “triple jeopardy” of age, race and gender.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

Margaret Yap

This paper aims to explore an extensive set of determinants of earnings and to offer recent empirical evidence of their effects on gender and racial earnings gaps.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore an extensive set of determinants of earnings and to offer recent empirical evidence of their effects on gender and racial earnings gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

Most previous studies looked at gender and racial comparisons independently of each other. This study extends previous studies by considering the interaction between gender and race. Using administrative data from a large Canadian firm, this paper explores the determinants of earnings based on a standard human capital model, comparing the earnings of white females, minority males and minority females with their white male counterparts. Both the dummy variable approach and a decomposition analysis are employed.

Findings

The results show that ranking in the organizational hierarchy accounts for most of the differences in gender and racial earnings, and ranking, together with human capital and job characteristics variables, explains over 90 percent of the earnings gap.

Research limitations/implications

The analyses in the paper are based on data from a Canadian organization with nation‐wide operations. The findings may not apply to small or medium sized enterprises in Canada and in other non‐Western economies.

Practical implications

To eliminate the earnings gap, equal pay programs need to be supplemented by effective employers' programs and policies targeted at equal advancement opportunity.

Originality/value

The paper uses firm‐level data, which provides natural controls for variations across firms and allows for more in‐depth analysis of the impact of various factors on earnings differentials.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Ivy Hammond, Sarah Godoy, Mikaela Kelly and Eraka Bath

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to cisgender girls, despite the inclusion of youth who identify as transgender in these programs. This paper aims to present a case study on the experience of a transgender adolescent girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation and provides a narrative of the multifarious challenges she faced while involved in institutional systems of care.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted an in-depth case review of all records on “Jade,” a white adolescent transgender girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation, from a specialty court program in the juvenile justice system between 2012 and 2016. Her experiences throughout childhood exemplify many of the unique challenges that transgender girls and young women with histories of exploitation or trafficking may encounter within service delivery and socioecological systems. This paper applied concepts adapted from the gender minority stress theoretical model to understand how minority gender identity can shape the experiences and outcomes of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation.

Findings

Jade’s narrative underscores the interplay of gender-based sexual violence, heteronormative structural barriers, transphobia and their intersectional impact on her experience while receiving specialized care. The intersectional hardships she experienced likely contributed to adverse biopsychosocial outcomes, including high rates of medical and behavioral health diagnoses and expectations of further rejection.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the extraordinary challenges and barriers faced by an often under-recognized and overlooked subset of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation, who may receive services that do not account for their unique needs related to gender expression and identity. This paper exemplifies how internalized stigma along with expectations of further rejection and victimization have implications for clinical and multidisciplinary intervention settings. Jade’s case underscores the need for improved access to supportive services for youth with minority gender identities, including peer community-building opportunities. Finally, this paper identifies a critical gap in US legislation and social policy. This gap contributes to the structural harms faced by transgender and gender-nonconforming youth receiving services during or following experiences of commercial sexual exploitation.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Doyin Atewologun and Ruth Sealy

In management studies, assumptions surround the fixed, categorical and binary nature of male, ethnic and other privileges. Compared to white, middle-class men, “others”…

Abstract

Purpose

In management studies, assumptions surround the fixed, categorical and binary nature of male, ethnic and other privileges. Compared to white, middle-class men, “others” are typically assumed not to experience privilege. The authors counter this assumption by applying intersectionality to examine privilege's juxtaposition with disadvantage. The paper offers an elaborated conceptualisation of organisational privilege and insight into the agency employed by individuals traditionally perceived as non-privileged. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using diaries and interviews, the paper analyses 20 micro-episodes from four senior minority ethnic women and men's accounts of intersecting ethnic, gender and senior identities. The paper identifies how privilege plays out at the juxtaposition of (male gender and hierarchical) advantage with (female gender and ethnic) disadvantage.

Findings

The fluidity of privilege is revealed through contextual, contested and conferred dimensions. Additionally, privilege is experienced in everyday micro-level encounters and the paper illustrates how “sometimes privileged” individuals manage their identities at intersections.

Research limitations/implications

This in-depth analysis draws on a small sample of unique British minority ethnic individuals to illustrate dimensions of privilege.

Practical implications

It is often challenging to discuss privilege. However, the focus on atypical wielders of power challenges binary assumptions of privilege. This can provide a common platform for dominant and non-dominant group members to share how societal and organisational privileges differentially impact groups. This inclusive approach could reduce dominant group members’ psychological and emotional resistance to social justice.

Originality/value

Through bridging privilege and intersectionality perspectives, the paper offers a complex and nuanced perspective that contrasts against prevalent conceptions of privilege as invisible and uncontested.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Pierre-Paul Tellier

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the human rights issues pertinent to adolescents of diverse sexual orientation and gender identities and the health consequences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the human rights issues pertinent to adolescents of diverse sexual orientation and gender identities and the health consequences resulting for the transgression of these rights. In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution endorsing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet, 73 member states criminalize the activities of these individuals. The other member states do not impose legal penalties on these activities, yet sexual and gender minority youth within these states continue to experience acts of physical and psychological aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

A commissioned position paper grounded in a convenient scholarly literature review on this topic.

Findings

Human rights transgressions by states or individuals lead to minority stress affecting the mental health and physical health of these youth.

Originality/value

The author makes a number of recommendations to address some of the impact resulting from the transgression of human rights in the world.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Mieke Beth Thomeer, Corinne Reczek and Allen J. LeBlanc

Purpose: In this chapter, we develop a concept of social biographies which draws on social network and life course theories to examine how a diverse set of social…

Abstract

Purpose: In this chapter, we develop a concept of social biographies which draws on social network and life course theories to examine how a diverse set of social relationships impacts health of sexual and gender minority (SGM) people over time.

Design/methodology/approach: We provide an overview of several decades of research on SGM people's social relationships, organizing this research within a social biographies framework.

Findings: We theorize about the importance of both the structure and content of SGM people's social networks for health, how these social relationships interact with each other, how these social biographies and their impacts shift across SGM cohorts and over the life course, and how they further are shaped by the intersection of a range of factors (e.g., race/ethnicity, social class).

Social biographies can remain constant or change over time, and relationships of all types and durations have the power to significantly improve or undermine health. This is in part because social ties both buffer and exacerbate the inimical effects of stress on health.

Originality/value: Traditional conceptualizations of relationships fail to reflect the diversity of relationships in SGM lives. Studying this diversity deepens our view of how social biographies influence health and how health inequities between SGM and cisgender and heterosexual (cishet) populations emerge. Studying social biographies of SGM people using theoretical and methodological tools from life course and social network perspectives reveals existing voids in the current literature, enabling researchers to better understand the shifting nature of social relationships in the twenty-first century.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Doyin Atewologun

The purpose of this paper is to explore experiences relating to and the nature of the episodes that raise individuals’ salience of their intersecting gender, ethnic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore experiences relating to and the nature of the episodes that raise individuals’ salience of their intersecting gender, ethnic and senior organizational identities. This paper is based on a presentation given at a British Academy of Management Joint Gender in Management and Identity Special Interest Groups Research Seminar entitled “Exploring Intersectionality of Gender and Identity”.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on identity-heightening incidents elicited through diaries and interviews from minority ethnic women and men in middle- and senior-management positions, the paper adopts a multilevel, intersectional framework to present “sites” of intersectional identity salience. Identity-salient sites were analysed from accounts of episodes that raised the salience of gender, ethnic and senior identities for respondents. Researcher reflections on identity salience are also analysed.

Findings

This paper draws on subjective accounts of identity salience from researcher and respondent experiences on pre-defined identity dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper uses rich, in-depth accounts of everyday experiences to reveal the dynamics of intersectional identity salience. Gender, ethnic and senior identities infuse each other with significance and meaning simultaneously and consecutively in everyday experiences.

Originality/value

This paper’s originality is drawn from the advancement of intersectionality studies through empirical research based on collecting identity-heightening qualitative data.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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