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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2018

Benjamin Bader, Sebastian Stoermer, Anna Katharina Bader and Tassilo Schuster

The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace gender harassment of female expatriates across 25 host countries and consider the role of institutional-level gender

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace gender harassment of female expatriates across 25 host countries and consider the role of institutional-level gender discrimination as a boundary condition. Further, the study investigates the effects of workplace gender harassment on frustration and job satisfaction and general job stress as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is comprised of 160 expatriates residing in 25 host countries. The authors test the model using partial least-squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results show that female expatriates experience more workplace gender harassment than male expatriates. This effect is particularly pronounced in host countries with strong institutional-level gender discrimination. Moreover, the authors found significant main effects of gender harassment on expatriates’ frustration and job satisfaction. Further, the authors identified a significant association between frustration and job satisfaction. No significant moderation effect of general job stress was found.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s data are cross-sectional. Future studies are encouraged to use longitudinal research designs. Further, future studies could center on perpetrators of harassment, different manifestations of harassment, and effective countermeasures.

Practical implications

The study raises awareness on the challenges of harassment of female expatriates and the role of the host country context. Further, the study shows the detrimental effects of gender harassment on female expatriates’ job satisfaction which is a central predictor of variables crucial to international assignments, for example, performance or assignment completion.

Originality/value

The study is among the first endeavors to include institutional-level gender discrimination as a boundary condition of workplace gender harassment of female expatriates, and therefore puts the interplay between macro- and micro-level processes into perspective.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Junghyun Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether observed hostility mediates the link between passive leadership and sexual harassment. The study also investigates how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether observed hostility mediates the link between passive leadership and sexual harassment. The study also investigates how workplace gender ratio might moderate this mediated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used online survey data by recruiting full-time working employees in various US organisations and industries.

Findings

Results suggest that when working under a passive leader, both men and women are more likely to experience sexual harassment. Furthermore, the positive association between hostility and sexual harassment is stronger for female employees who work in a male-dominated organisation (low gender ratio). However, the moderating effects of workplace gender ratio were not significant for male employees.

Practical implications

Organisations seeking to reduce or prevent sexual harassment should monitor and screen out managers who display passive leadership behaviour and create a work environment where collegial and civil interactions are encouraged and valued.

Originality/value

This research advances our knowledge regarding the organisational factors of sexual harassment by examining passive leadership, hostile work context, and workplace gender ratio. Theoretically, the study contributes to the sexual harassment literature by incorporating evidence on passive leadership from a broader field of workplace aggression into sexual harassment research. Practically, the study offers important implications for organisations that seek to minimise sexual harassment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Tuija Muhonen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of gender harassment and how it is related to different organisational factors, ill-health and job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of gender harassment and how it is related to different organisational factors, ill-health and job satisfaction among women and men working as university teachers and researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

A web questionnaire was conducted in a university college in South Sweden. The final sample consisted of 322 participants, 186 women and 136 men.

Findings

The results showed that gender harassment was more prevalent among women than men, and among senior lecturers and professors than lecturers. Gender harassment was associated with high job demands, less fair leadership style of the immediate manager and job dissatisfaction for both women and men. For women, there was also an association between gender harassment, ill-health and gender of the immediate manager. For men, poorer social organisational climate was related to gender harassment, but contrary to women, gender harassment was not related to the gender of the immediate manager.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the research was conducted only in one university, the results imply that gender harassment can have negative consequences for teachers and researchers. As the immediate manager’s leadership style seems to be associated with the occurrence of gender harassment, universities should take this into consideration in their leadership programs.

Originality/value

The paper highlights gender harassment, a subtle form of sexual harassment, among university teachers and researchers.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Marla H. Kohlman

Purpose – To ascertain how the institutional environment of the armed forces has differentially impacted men and women in their experiences of sexual harassment.…

Abstract

Purpose – To ascertain how the institutional environment of the armed forces has differentially impacted men and women in their experiences of sexual harassment.

Methodology – Logistic regression analyses of the 1995 Armed Forces Sexual Harassment Survey and the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey – Workplace and Gender Relations.

Findings – Gender does not override all other factors in determining who is most likely to be targeted for sexual harassment in the military. Gender is shown to be most informative about the likelihood of experiencing sexual harassment for women only when combined with race and rank. For men, however, it seems that race is more salient than rank in determining the likelihood of being targeted for sexual harassment.

Research limitations – One glaring omission in this analysis is the effect of same-sex sexual harassment on the work environment of the military. There simply was not sufficient time or space to cover that aspect in this analysis, but it is an important direction for further research on sexual harassment in the military to explore.

Practical implications – Policy makers in the Department of Defense must be more attuned to the interlocking effects of race and gender as they combine with rank to properly address the problem of sexual harassment in the military. It is not enough to simply provide training about sexual harassment; personnel comprising the chain of command within the hierarchical structure of the military must become more cognizant of the microlevel interactions occurring between personnel as part of the everyday work environment.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Amy E. Hurley

Explores the roles of sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships. Today’s leaders are concerned about controlling sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender

Abstract

Explores the roles of sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships. Today’s leaders are concerned about controlling sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender work relationships and there is an increased awareness of the sexual harassment aspect of sexuality in today’s society. Describes sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships and explores the sex role spillover model’s explanation for sexuality in these relationships. Views sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships along a continuum ranging from non‐sexual, psychologically intimate relationships to the extreme of sexual harassment. Includes mentors’, protégés’ and co‐workers’ perceptions of sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships in this discussion along with the impact of these perceptions on cross‐gender mentoring relationships. Finally, considers ways to manage sexuality and intimacy in cross‐gender mentoring relationships.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Kathrina Robotham and Lilia Cortina

Despite organizational policies aimed at harassment prevention, harassment based on gender and ethnicity remains pervasive in places of work. Although previous research…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite organizational policies aimed at harassment prevention, harassment based on gender and ethnicity remains pervasive in places of work. Although previous research has identified other antecedents such as harassment climate, the purpose of this paper is to consider whether a climate of respect leads to reductions in identity-based harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

In a military sample of active duty men and women (Study 1) and a sample of working adults (Study 2), the authors use survey methods to test whether a climate of respect predicts the occurrence of two forms of identity-based abuse: sexual harassment (Study 1) and ethnic harassment (Study 2).

Findings

The authors find that a climate of respect uniquely predicts harassment based on sex and ethnicity, above and beyond effects of climate for harassment.

Originality/value

These results suggest that, while traditional harassment prevention efforts remain important for deterring identity-based harassment, promotion of a respectful work environment is also an effective tool.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Arosha S. Adikaram

As prior research has indicated, women who experience behaviors that fall under the accepted definitions of sexual harassment, do not label, acknowledge, or claim these…

Abstract

Purpose

As prior research has indicated, women who experience behaviors that fall under the accepted definitions of sexual harassment, do not label, acknowledge, or claim these behaviors as such. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative explanation for this non-labeling by arguing that apprehension in expressing sexuality, stemming from apparent subjugation of sex and sexuality by society, posited in a culturally value laden backdrop, leads to Sri Lankan women not labeling or acknowledging sexual harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing grounded theory, in-depth, one-on-one interviews were conducted with 40 working women.

Findings

It was revealed that social construction of gender and sexuality in Sri Lankan society, with its instilled moralistic beliefs and norms such as respectability, sexual innocence, chastity, and purity among women, suppress and govern their sexuality in the workplace. The resultant self-surveillance and self-discipline lead to women evading expressing and using vocabulary denoting sexuality – including the term “sexual harassment” – mainly for fear of social censorship, self-blame, and victim blame.

Practical implications

The study shows how policies and procedures of sexual harassment must heed the gendered everyday realities of women in workplaces and questions the capacity and utilization of these laws and policies that employ the label “sexual” in addressing the issue.

Originality/value

This paper advances knowledge on sexual harassment by providing new insights on how cultural values and norms leading to social construction of gender and sexuality play an important role in non-labeling of sexual harassment. Moving further, this paper illustrates how Foucault’s treatise of “sexuality and power,” and “social construction of reality” can be employed to theorize non-labeling.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Paul Bowen, Peter Edwards and Helen Lingard

The discrimination/harassment experiences of survey respondents in different construction professional groups in South Africa is compared, and the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

The discrimination/harassment experiences of survey respondents in different construction professional groups in South Africa is compared, and the relationship between harassment/discrimination and perceived work stress is examined.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was administered and 626 responses (ca. 6.5 per cent of target population) received. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the response data.

Findings

Harassment and discrimination on ethnic grounds are experienced in all of the South African construction professions included in the survey. Respondents also indicated that they felt underpaid and that their job security was adversely affected by their ethnicity. Sexual harassment and gender-based harassment and discrimination were more frequently reported by architects than by other professionals. Harassment and discrimination were found to correlate with higher perceived levels of work stress.

Research limitations/implications

Harassment and discrimination, on ethnic and on gender-based grounds, constitute a significant stressor for many construction professionals in South Africa, particularly among architects.

Practical implications

Strategies designed to address and counter harassment/discrimination in the South African construction industry should be implemented or reinforced as part of broader stress management programmes. Employers have a major role to play in this, but unions and professional associations should also take part.

Originality value

Previous research into work stress has focused on the experiences of workers in developed countries. The paper provides insight into the problem of harassment and discrimination in the unique situation of post-apartheid South Africa. It supports the link between harassment and discrimination and perceived levels of personal stress in this context.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Jennifer Berdahl and Barnini Bhattacharyya

The purpose of this paper is to identify promising themes of the papers in the special issues of Equality, Diversity and Inclusion dedicated to advancing scholarship on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify promising themes of the papers in the special issues of Equality, Diversity and Inclusion dedicated to advancing scholarship on sex-based harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual overview of the research pertaining to these themes and an analysis of the special issues papers' contributions to these themes.

Findings

Four themes that represent important but relatively neglected lines of inquiry into sex-based harassment are identified. These are (1) the psychology of harassment, (2) organizational culture and networks, (3) the invisible majority and (4) the importance of collective action.

Originality/value

The paper offers an expert perspective on the state of research related to sex-based harassment and four themes that are important to moving it forward.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Stephen M. Crow, Sandra J. Hartman, Donald Hammond and Lillian Y. Fok

Describes a study which represents an initial examination of therelationship between personality factors and sexual and non‐sexualharassment. The traditional approach in…

Abstract

Describes a study which represents an initial examination of the relationship between personality factors and sexual and non‐sexual harassment. The traditional approach in the United States to sexual harassment sensitivity has been in terms of social‐sexual behaviours based on gender. Moreover, a review of previous research indicates that the examination of personality factors as imperatives for sexual harassment sensitivity has received little attention. The findings of this research, however, suggest that there are relationships between sexual harassment sensitivity and several personality factors. The findings imply that personality factors may potentially play a significant role in the counselling of sexual harassment aggressors and victims and in the development of programmes to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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