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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Eva Medina Moral and Ainhoa Herrarte Sánchez

Women’s empowerment is a multidimensional concept that encompasses different aspects such as access to education, freedom to make vital decisions, labor market access…

Abstract

Women’s empowerment is a multidimensional concept that encompasses different aspects such as access to education, freedom to make vital decisions, labor market access, wages, and political participation, among others. In this research, the authors construct a multidimensional index of women’s empowerment that takes into account individual resources and achievements and analyze its evolution across countries using data from the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations for 17 gender indicators across 96 countries over the period 1995–2015. By means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the authors identify three dimensions of women’s empowerment: reproductive health, economic participation, and basic education. In addition, the authors use cluster techniques to classify countries into four groups with similar behavior patterns in the different domains of women’s empowerment: a group of countries with high levels in the domains of reproductive health and basic education but with low levels in economic participation; a group of countries with high levels in the domains of reproductive health and economic participation that should pay attention to education; a group of countries with medium levels across the three dimensions of women’s empowerment, especially in reproductive health and economic participation; and a group of countries with low levels in all the dimensions of women’s empowerment, especially in reproductive health and basic education. The comparison of these different patterns serves to highlight the aspects in which improvements have been made or, on the contrary, to highlight the obstacles that are hindering the improvement of gender equality. Finally, the results suggest that advancements in women’s empowerment improve the countries’ level of development.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Bob Doherty

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food…

Abstract

Gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered core development objectives (SDG 5) and instrumental in achieving other SDGs such as economic growth and food security and improved health and education. Cocoa is seen as a ‘man’s crop’ and there is entrenched gender bias in its value chain. However, women play a crucial role in the tending and post-harvesting of cocoa which are key to the price paid. This chapter investigates, via a 20-year in-depth case study, the partnership between Fair Trade Social Enterprise Divine Chocolate Ltd and Kuapa Kokoo (KK) cocoa farmer’s cooperative in Ghana. The case takes an in-depth look at women’s role in the cocoa value chain and how their strategic interests, practical needs and power can be addressed.

The Divine–Kuapa Kooko partnership, which implemented a clear resourced gender equality strategy, has made a positive contribution to reducing inequality, empowering women cocoa farmers and improving their rights. Setting quotas for women’s representation at all levels of KK’s structure has improved the strategic interests of women cocoa farmers and transformed the political structures of the cooperative. Also setting gender equality as part of the KK’s constitution enhances the empowerment and power of women cocoa farmers. Providing equal access to training and resources also enhances the practical capabilities of women.

The chapter proposes a framework of how to achieve improvements in gender quality and women’s empowerment. This case will assist other organisations who have targeted Sustainable Development Goal 5 of gender equality and women’s empowerment as part of their strategy.

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Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Emily Anderson, Ayesha Khurshid, Karen Monkman and Payal Shah

This chapter explores the colocation of ethnographic and discourse approaches in gender-focused research in comparative and international education. Drawing from the…

Abstract

This chapter explores the colocation of ethnographic and discourse approaches in gender-focused research in comparative and international education. Drawing from the authors’ scholarship in the fields of girls’ education, women’s empowerment, and international education policy and development, this chapter highlights opportunities to interrogate culture in qualitative data through ethnographic and discourse approaches. The chapter concludes with reflection and future directions for these authors and for the field.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-724-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Veronika Wittmann

The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over‐determined discrimination of so‐called coloured and black South African women, not just…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over‐determined discrimination of so‐called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation.

Design/methodology/approach

The observations grapple with reconciling the political rhetoric of equality based on the new constitution and new legislation with the realpolitik of race and gender relations as they affect the lives of women. The complexity of negotiating the values and problems inherited from apartheid while infusing new faith in democracy is reflected in the paper on gender and empowerment.

Findings

The paper does not simply present women as victims of apartheid legacy, but discloses the skewed social and cultural circumstances reproducing the cycle of their impoverishment. To counter the narratives of struggle and to balance the research and findings successful interventions by NGOs, CBOs and grassroots organizations are illustrated.

Originality/value

The paper provides the insights of how gender‐conscious organizations act as part and parcel of the overall democratisation process of South African society. Furthermore, it highlights the role of digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) in gender and empowerment activities.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Michelle Carnegie and Lila Singh-Peterson

This chapter situates the South Pacific region’s engagement in progressing gender equality and women’s empowerment within broader gender and development (GAD) debates. It…

Abstract

This chapter situates the South Pacific region’s engagement in progressing gender equality and women’s empowerment within broader gender and development (GAD) debates. It explores the international ‘gender agenda’ and how its associated frameworks, platforms, policies and metrics have diffused throughout the South Pacific. Limited progress in achieving gender equality and empowerment goals has been made, globally and regionally, with considerable challenges yet to be overcome. Complementing the book’s focus on the integration of gender into agricultural research and development projects, the chapter reviews rural women’s access to income and land in the South Pacific, and their contributions to agricultural production and marketing.

Details

Integrating Gender in Agricultural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-056-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Funminiyi Peter Oyawole, Adebayo Shittu, Mojisola Kehinde, Gbemisola Ogunnaike and Lois Toluwani Akinjobi

This study assessed the extent of women empowerment and empirically investigated its effect on the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices at the plot level in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This study assessed the extent of women empowerment and empirically investigated its effect on the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices at the plot level in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the empowerment score and women empowerment gap for each household which were derived from the Abbreviated Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index, a multivariate probit model which controlled for the influence of gender and women empowerment on climate-smart agricultural practices' adoption was estimated. The study made use of data from the ECOWAS-RAAF-PASANAO survey conducted in Nigeria in 2017.

Findings

The results show that men are significantly more empowered than women in four out of the five domains of empowerment and are more likely to adopt crop rotation. However, female plot managers have a higher likelihood of adopting green manure and agroforestry, while no significant gender differences in the adoption of organic manure and zero/minimum tillage were found.

Social implications

The results suggest that closing the empowerment gap between women and their spouses would positively influence the adoption of agroforestry.

Originality/value

This study represents the first attempt to examine the adoption of these practices from a gender perspective using a nationally representative plot-level dataset in Nigeria. Furthermore, this study contributes to existing literature on how gender differences influence technology adoption by modelling the effect of empowerment score for each plot manager, and the women empowerment gap for each household on the adoption of five climate-smart agricultural practices.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Haya Al-Dajani and Susan Marlow

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship contextualised within the lives of displaced Palestinian migrant women operating home-based enterprises in Amman, Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken during which semi-structured in-depth interviews were regularly conducted with 43 women producing high-quality traditional embroidered goods within home-based enterprises. The empirical material was utilised to inform and illustrate the creation of an empowerment framework.

Findings

Entrepreneurship is popularly presented as an individually focused economic undertaking. However, this paper demonstrates it is also a socio-politically situated activity; within this particular context, marginalised subordinated women were empowered through their home-based enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper offers a gender informed conceptual framework to inform the analyses of empowerment and entrepreneurship. The discussion describes the necessary processes for development goals to be realised, and explains how traditionally subordinated women can utilise enterprise to contribute to social change. In so doing, the proposed conceptual framework acts as a theoretical illustration of the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu and Amaka Christiana Chime

The majority of poor women in Africa live in rural areas, and investigating their empowerment status and factors influencing their empowerment is therefore a tool for…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of poor women in Africa live in rural areas, and investigating their empowerment status and factors influencing their empowerment is therefore a tool for overcoming poverty. This paper investigated the dimensions and determinants of women's empowerment in rural Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Information on women's agencies, resource, income, leadership and time/workload was used to construct women empowerment index (WEI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit regression model.

Findings

Most of the decisions were made by the women's spouses, while decisions on how to spend her earnings were jointly made with her spouse. A majority of the women did not justify beating nor owned businesses. A larger percentage of rural women were disempowered than men; agency had the highest relative contribution to women's disempowerment; and women in the northern zones of Nigeria were less empowered than their southern counterparts. Husband's education and her age were inversely related to women's empowerments while her education, household size and being the household head were directly related to it.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of empirical studies on multidimensional women's empowerment in rural Nigeria. This study therefore provides a clear understanding of drivers of women's empowerment in rural Nigeria, and its findings are to serve as guiding documents for policymakers in designing gender-responsive interventions programs and implementation of a genuine gender mainstreaming in rural development policy in Nigeria. Further, the findings would contribute to the growing body of knowledge, especially empirical studies, on women's empowerment in Nigeria and the developing world.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0455

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Maimunah Ismail, Roziah Mohd Rasdi and Akhmal Nadirah Abd. Jamal

Gender empowerment measure (GEM) is an assessment about inequalities between men's and women's opportunities in a country. The concept of empowerment can be explored…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender empowerment measure (GEM) is an assessment about inequalities between men's and women's opportunities in a country. The concept of empowerment can be explored through three interrelated dimensions: agency, resources and achievements. Agency refers to processes by which choices and abilities are made, resources are the medium through which agency is exercised and achievements are the outcomes of agency. Specifically, this paper seeks to examine an indicator of GEM specifically in the achievements in politics based on data from selected developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A GEM indicator based on percentage of female parliamentarian taken from secondary sources such as United Nations Development Programme was used in the analysis of empowerment. The developed countries were represented by Norway, Australia and Japan; while the developing countries are Malaysia, the Philippines and China.

Findings

There are variations in the achievement indicator in terms of percentage of female parliamentarians in the two groups of countries. Reasons for variations are explained.

Research limitations/implications

Although the analysis was limited to the secondary data of the selected countries only, the results may have valuable implications to women's studies and human resource development practitioners particularly at institutional and policy‐making levels of the respective countries.

Originality/value

GEM is a concept which is lacking in terms of definition. Thus, the study could contribute to a fuller understanding of one of the GEM indicators, inevitably towards constructive solutions to improve the participation of women in public function.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Abstract

Details

Integrating Gender in Agricultural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-056-2

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