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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Alberto R. Melgoza, Neal M. Ashkanasy and Oluremi B. Ayoko

Based on a model of employee personal gender self-categorization, we examine the relationships between prejudicial attitudes and experiences of aggression in a…

Abstract

Based on a model of employee personal gender self-categorization, we examine the relationships between prejudicial attitudes and experiences of aggression in a male-dominated workplace. Data collected from 603 employees in a male-dominated global workplace revealed that individuals who self-categorize as either males or females experience differential powerful emotions. Additionally, we found that the more anger experienced by employees who self-categorize either as males or females, the stronger their female prejudicial attitudes. In contrast, we found that contempt was negatively associated with female prejudicial attitudes; that is, the more contempt experienced by employees who self-categorize either as males or females, the weaker their female prejudicial attitudes.

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Emotions and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Michel Alexandre

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of categorization endogeneity (CE), meant as the influence of endogenous elements (e.g. behavioral traits) in group…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of categorization endogeneity (CE), meant as the influence of endogenous elements (e.g. behavioral traits) in group categorization, in the persistence of group inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

The author integrates economic and sociological elements in a dynamic model of human capital accumulation by phenotypically distinct individuals. Both kinds of elements are influenced by the degree of CE.

Findings

Effect of CE in the incentive of members of dominated groups to accumulate human capital is twofold: it allows them to pass as belonging to the dominant group but, on the other hand, it reduces the social pay-off stemming from such behavior, as they may be “expelled” from the reference group by their peers. It is found that, under sufficiently low levels of discrimination, CE widens the range of values of the neighborhood effects parameter for which group inequality is stable.

Originality/value

Despite the endogeneity of categorization has been explored in other studies, this is the first one which argues that this element may underpin, under certain conditions, group inequality regarding human capital accumulation. The results presented here sheds some light on real-world issues, as the nature of neighborhood effects, the role of segregation on the maintenance of racial inequality and public policies to combat group inequality.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Abstract

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Emotions and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Birgit Weyer

The purpose of this study is to determine if observed ratings on a multi‐source feedback (MSF) instrument reflect the same cognitive constructs of leadership across…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine if observed ratings on a multi‐source feedback (MSF) instrument reflect the same cognitive constructs of leadership across multiple rating pairs based on rater and ratee gender.

Design/methodology/approach

The independent variables of this quantitative research study are MSF rater and ratee gender. The dependent variables are leadership constructs reflected by MSF ratings. During phase I of the data analysis, five models of leadership constructs are built. During phase II of the data analysis, the five models are compared against each other to discover if the same factors determine the cognitive constructs of leadership comprising each model.

Findings

Findings from this study indicate that constructs of leadership across multiple rating pairs reflect the same cognitive constructs of leadership. Measurement equivalence for the MSF instrument under investigation has been established.

Practical implications

It is concluded that the MSF instrument is free of bias, thus not contributing to the existence of a “glass ceiling” keeping women from entering top‐level leadership positions. The potential for a “social epidemic” in the near future whereby the glass ceiling will be shattered and many women will enter into top leadership positions is confirmed.

Originality/value

Findings are contrary to the conclusions drawn from the literature review of social role theory, expectation states theory, and leadership categorization theory. This study fills a gap in the empirical body of knowledge, by including a large number of female managers.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Muhammad Ali and Oluremi B. Ayoko

Demographic faultlines are associated with negative group processes and low performance. Little is known about the formation of faultlines in boards and how they can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Demographic faultlines are associated with negative group processes and low performance. Little is known about the formation of faultlines in boards and how they can be weakened to capitalize on the positive effects of diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on social identity theory and faultlines theory to provide insights into how gender and age faultlines are formed in a board. Subsequently, it proposes and tests a U-shaped board size–faultlines strength relationship. Archival data were collected on 288 organizations listed on the Australian Securities Exchange.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that small- and large-sized boards experience stronger faultlines than medium-sized boards.

Originality/value

This study provides pioneering evidence for a U-shaped relationship between board size and demographic faultlines strength. These findings inform practice by suggesting an optimal board size.

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Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Kowoon Kim and Mary Ann Von Glinow

The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of the international work experiences of lesbian and gay self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) with a particular focus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of the international work experiences of lesbian and gay self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) with a particular focus on the effects of different contexts on their disclosure decisions. In doing so, this study responds to the call for more empirical and extensive studies of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on in-depth analysis of four interviews of lesbian and gay SIEs.

Findings

The findings presented in this paper support three contextual determinants – personal, organizational, and country-level context. These contextual determinants significantly influence lesbian and gay SIEs’ disclosure decisions and their overall international work experience.

Originality/value

Given the rapid globalization and dynamic business environment, workforce diversity has become a business imperative over the past few decades. Diversity in today’s workforce includes not simply gender and racial diversity, but also age, culture, sexual orientation, religion, education, and disabilities as primary categories of diversity. Moreover, new technologies require highly skilled labor the world over, exacerbating existing global talent shortages. These advancements in technology, accompanied by massive shortfalls in skilled labor, have expanded the pool of potential expatriates to include those non-traditional ones who have been excluded from international assignments. Particularly, as LGBT rights to equal employment opportunity and their potential contributions to international assignments have been increasingly recognized worldwide in recent years, attention to LGBT expatriates has grown exponentially. Nevertheless, neither their experiences as lesbian and gay SIEs in international assignments nor the effects of contexts on those experiences, including disclosure decisions, have yet to be fully explored. In this sense, this paper provides a contribution to the deeper understanding of lesbian and gay SIEs in multidimensional contexts of an international assignment. Although the study examined lesbian and gay expatriates, results suggest insights into the entire LGBT expatriate community.

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Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Jatta Jännäri, Seppo Poutanen and Anne Kovalainen

This paper aims to analyse the ways the textual materials of job advertisements do the gendering for prospective expert positions and create a space for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the ways the textual materials of job advertisements do the gendering for prospective expert positions and create a space for ambiquity/non-ambiquity in the gender labelling of this expertise. Expert positions are almost always openly announced and are important to organizations because they often lead to higher managerial positions. By gendering the prospective positions, the job advertisements bring forth repertoires strengthening the gendering of work and gendered expert employee positions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on qualitative textual and visual data of open job advertisements for expert positions. The materials of the study are gathered from open job advertisements in two countries, i.e. Finland and Estonia with rather similar labour market structures in relation to gender positions but differing as regards their gender equality.

Findings

The analyses show that the gendering of expert work takes place in the job advertisements by rendering subtly gendered articulations, yet allowing for interpretative repertoires appear. The analysis reveals some differences in the formulations of the advertisements for expert jobs in the two countries. It also shows that in general the requirements for an ideal expert candidate are coated with superlatives that are gendered in rather stereotypical ways, and that the ideal candidates for highly expert jobs are extremely flexible and follows the ideal of an adaptable and plastic employee, willing to work their utmost. This paper contributes to the “doing gender” literature by adding an analysis of the textual gendering of ideal candidates for positions of expertise.

Research limitations/implications

The research materials do not expose all the issues pertinent to questions of the ideal gendered candidate. For instance, questions of ethnicity in relation to the definition of the ideal candidate cannot be studied with the data used for this study. Being an exploratory study, the results do not aim for generalizable results concerning job advertisements for expert positions.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the “doing gender” and “gendering” literature by addressing the question of how and in what ways gender is defined and done for an expert positions prior the candidates are chosen to those jobs. It also offers new insights into the global construction of gendered expert jobs advertisements by addressing the topic with data from two countries. It further contributes to understanding the gendered shaping of expertise in the management literature.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Sharon Mavin, Patricia Bryans and Rosie Cunningham

The purpose of this paper is to highlight gendered media constructions which discourage women's acceptability as political leaders and trivialise or ignore their contribution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight gendered media constructions which discourage women's acceptability as political leaders and trivialise or ignore their contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Media analysis of UK newspapers, government web sites, worldwide web relating to the UK 2010 government election, women MPs and in particular representations of Harriet Harman and Theresa May.

Findings

Media constructions of UK women political leaders are gendered and powerful in messaging women's (un)acceptability as leaders against embedded stereotypes. Being invisible via tokenism and yet spotlighted on the basis of their gender, media constructions trivialize their contribution, thus detracting from their credibility as leaders.

Research limitations/implications

UK‐based study grounded in opportune “snapshot” media analysis during election and resultant formation of UK coalition Government. Focus on two women political leaders, results may not be generalisable.

Practical implications

Raises awareness of the numerical minority status of UK women political leaders, the invisibility‐visibility contradiction and the power of the media to construct women leaders against gender stereotypes. Call for continued challenge to gendered leader stereotypes and women's representation in UK political leadership.

Originality/value

Highlights power of media to perpetuate gender stereotypes of UK women political leaders.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Aparna Joshi and Hyuntak Roh

Although some researchers have recognized that context can play an important role in explaining the mixed findings of past diversity research, to date a comprehensive…

Abstract

Although some researchers have recognized that context can play an important role in explaining the mixed findings of past diversity research, to date a comprehensive framework for specifying these contextual influences has been lacking. In order to address this gap, we propose a framework for future research that incorporates contextual variables at extra-organizational, organizational, and team levels. We consider how these various aspects of diversity influence categorization-based or elaboration-based diversity outcomes. We also present findings of a literature review that identifies aspects of diversity context that have received attention directly or indirectly in research conducted between 1999 and 2007.

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Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Douglas L. Fugate and Joanna Phillips

The purpose of this paper is to replicate and extend earlier work on product gender perceptions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to replicate and extend earlier work on product gender perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology tested six hypotheses, using nearly 500 respondents. The hypotheses were investigated using a survey approach with validated scales. Likert‐type data were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures.

Findings

Analysis of the data demonstrated that product gendering is still prevalent. In addition, males were more likely than females to purchase gender‐congruent products; that individuals with a greater desire for product‐self‐congruence used products as a form of self‐concept; that individuals reared in non‐traditional households were less focused on gender congruence; that less traditional individuals were less focused on gender congruence; and that those who sought gender congruence were more likely to seek gender cues in the marketing mix.

Research limitations/implications

The product selection was based on a previous study and the sample was non‐random. Both of these decisions could be questioned.

Practical implications

These research results will allow one to understand whether social change during the past decade has altered product gender perceptions and to explore the degree to which consumers seek congruence between their own gender orientations and perceived product gender. This knowledge could be very important to consumer goods marketers making product design and promotional decisions.

Originality/value

The paper examines gender congruence in a maturing Generation Y, a generation second in size only to the Baby Boomers and one of significant market importance. It also provides the first substantive new data on this subject in over a decade.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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