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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Ismail Nooraddini

Past literature has focused on the intergenerational transmission of gender ideologies, without considering the role cultural context plays. That is, while it is…

Abstract

Past literature has focused on the intergenerational transmission of gender ideologies, without considering the role cultural context plays. That is, while it is understood that there is a positive relationship between mothers’ gender ideology and that of their adolescents, how might this relationship differ among foreign-born mothers and their native-born adolescent children? This chapter extends the literature on the construction and transmission of gender ideology between immigrant mothers and their children in two ways. First, using data from the child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=2,202), it examines adolescent gender ideology as influenced by mothers’ gender beliefs and nativity. Second, it assesses the interaction between maternal gender ideologies and nativity as they influence adolescent ideology. Findings from this study suggest that the nativity of the mother does not affect the adolescent’s ideology, nor does it act as a moderator of maternal influence. The chapter ends with a summary and contextualization of the findings framed in developmental psychology and suggesting that factors external to the household, such as the influence of peers, may work to mitigate the effects of cultural frameworks.

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Gender and Generations: Continuity and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-033-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2020

Shahnaz Aziz, Christina Pittman and Karl Wuensch

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among workaholism, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and gender role beliefs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among workaholism, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and gender role beliefs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected, through administration of an online survey, from 409 faculty and staff at a large Southeastern university.

Findings

Workaholism and OCBs were negatively related. Additionally, both feminine and masculine role beliefs were associated with OCBs.

Research limitations/implications

Future researchers may benefit from examining a sample outside an educational institution.

Social implications

As our society continues to change, gender role beliefs will become less restricted to our biological genders and it will become essential for organizations to understand how they relate to work behavior (e.g. OCBs). Namely, androgyny may be a desirable trait for employees.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the relationships among workaholism, OCBs and gender role beliefs.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Ann Hergatt Huffman, Kristine J. Olson, Thomas C. O’Gara Jr and Eden B. King

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a correlate and as a moderator) and hypothesized that gender role beliefs play an important factor related to fathers’ experiences of work-family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed an online survey that consisted of questions related to work and family experiences. The final sample consisted of 264 employed, married fathers.

Findings

Results showed a relationship between traditional gender role beliefs and number of hours spent at work and at home. Additionally, number of work hours was related to time-based work-to-family conflict, but not strain-based work-to-family conflict. The results supported the expectation that work hours mediate the relationship between a father's traditional gender role beliefs and time-based work-to-family conflict.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include the use cross-sectional and self-report data. Future research might want to expand the theoretical model to be more inclusive of fathers of more diverse demographic backgrounds, and assess the model with a longitudinal design.

Practical implications

A key theoretical implication gleaned from the study is that work-family researchers should include the socially constructed variable of gender roles in their work-family research. Findings provide support for the contention that organizations need to ensure that mothers’ and fathers’ unique needs are being met through family-friendly programs. The authors provide suggestions for specific workplace strategies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that focussed on fathers’ experiences of the work-family interface. The results clarify that traditional gender role beliefs give rise to fathers’ gendered behaviors and ultimately work-family conflict.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Gender is at core a group process because people use it as a primary frame for coordinating behavior in interpersonal relations. The everyday use of sex/gender as cultural…

Abstract

Gender is at core a group process because people use it as a primary frame for coordinating behavior in interpersonal relations. The everyday use of sex/gender as cultural tool for organizing social relations spreads gendered meanings beyond sex and reproduction to all spheres of social life that are carried out through social relationships and constitutes gender as a distinct and obdurate system of inequality. Through gender's role in organizing social relations, gender inequality is rewritten into new economic and social arrangements as they emerge, contributing to the persistence of that inequality in modified form in the face of potentially leveling economic and political changes in contemporary society.

Details

Social Psychology of Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1430-0

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Krysti N. Ryan

The emergence of gender-nonconforming behavior in a child presents an opportunity and, often, significant pressure for parents to question the gender beliefs they have…

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of gender-nonconforming behavior in a child presents an opportunity and, often, significant pressure for parents to question the gender beliefs they have taken for granted. The purpose of this research is to examine how parents of gender-diverse youth respond to such pressures and ultimately come to understand and support their children’s gender identity.

Methodology/approach

This research is guided by Ridgeway’s theoretical concept of gender as a primary frame for coordinating social life. Using in-depth interviews with 36 supportive parents of gender-diverse children, the author details the process by which parents developed a critical consciousness of gender and subsequently adopted trans-affirming beliefs in response to their children’s gender-nonconformity.

Findings

Findings illustrate the power of gender as a primary frame for organizing life within the family as well as the circumstances under which hegemonic gender beliefs can be disrupted and alternative beliefs can be formed. The analysis shows that the process of making space for gender diversity within the home, which is taken on almost exclusively by mothers, invokes competing maternal mandates of raising “proper” children versus modeling selfless devotion to children’s happiness and well-being. As mothers navigate these conflicting requirements to create greater gender freedom for their children, they reinforce and perpetuate gender stereotypes that cast women as natural caregivers. Ironically, the work of intensive mothering is also the mechanism through which women come to develop alternative gender beliefs that they then use to expand gender possibilities for their children.

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Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-613-6

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Xingqiang Du and Quan Zeng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religious entrepreneurs on bank loans and further examine the moderating effect of entrepreneurial gender.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of religious entrepreneurs on bank loans and further examine the moderating effect of entrepreneurial gender.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2010, the Chinese national survey reported the different religious beliefs of private entrepreneurs. Using this set of survey data, the authors obtain a sample of 4,330 Chinese family firms and employ the Tobit regression approach to examine the relationship between the amount of bank loans and the religious background of entrepreneurs. In addition, the authors use the propensity score matching approach to address the endogeneity issue.

Findings

Based on the data from the 2010 national survey, the authors document that the amount of bank loans is significantly higher for Chinese family firms with religious entrepreneurs than for their counterparts. This finding suggests that religious individuals are inclined to be more ethical and honest and Chinese family firms with religious entrepreneurs transfer soft information to banks, and eventually lenders favor religious entrepreneurs with more bank loans. Moreover, the authors reveal that the amount of bank loans is significantly larger for firms with female entrepreneurs than for those without female entrepreneurs. In addition, entrepreneurial gender attenuates the positive relationship between religious entrepreneurs and bank loans.

Originality/value

This study is one of few studies to examine the influence of an entrepreneur’s religious belief on bank credit decisions and adds to previous studies about religious influence on corporate behavior by revealing a positive association between religious entrepreneurs and bank loans. Moreover, this study validates that female entrepreneurs exert positive effects on the amount of bank loans and attenuate the positive influence of religious entrepreneurs on bank loans.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Wessam Khedr

This paper explores gendered beliefs about the Glass Ceiling (GC) using a new measure, the “Career Pathway Survey” CPS, in an under-researched country, Egypt.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores gendered beliefs about the Glass Ceiling (GC) using a new measure, the “Career Pathway Survey” CPS, in an under-researched country, Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 438 employees in Egypt. Participants completed the CPS and other demographic and work measures. The CPS tests four GC beliefs: denial, resilience, acceptance and resignation.

Findings

Factor analysis validated the configuration of the four factors of the CPS. Descriptive tests showed the female sample with resignation belief, whereas male sample views their females counterparts as resilient. The chi-squared test showed differences in beliefs with different age groups, education level, marital status, number of children, job contracts, job tenure and managerial levels. Moreover, there are evidences of more intensive GC barriers in male-dominant organizations.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to: re-validate the CPS measure, examine demographic and work factor roles and the CPS, test CPS on a male sample and analyse differences between male and female beliefs according to gender-dominated sectors.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2014

Amy S. Wharton and Mychel Estevez

We examine chairs’ beliefs about the role of gender and gender inequality in their departments. Because work-family concerns have been central to explanations of gender

Abstract

Purpose

We examine chairs’ beliefs about the role of gender and gender inequality in their departments. Because work-family concerns have been central to explanations of gender inequality in the academy, we pay special attention to these issues.

Methodology/approach

We analyze interview data collected from 52 department chairs at one research-intensive, public university.

Findings

Although the chairs we interviewed were sympathetic and aware in many respects, their views on gender, work, and family were filtered through the lens of personal responsibility and choice, an outmoded view of work as separate and distinct from family life, and a notion of gender as a personal characteristic rather than an entrenched feature of academic work and careers.

Originality/value

Our focus on departmental leaders fills an important gap in the literature, which has focused more on the perspectives of faculty and less on those with the power to frame gender issues.

Details

Gender Transformation in the Academy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-070-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Shelley J. Correll and Stephen Benard

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional…

Abstract

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional change in recent decades. Two classes of explanations that have been offered as partial explanations of persistent gender inequality include economic theories of statistical discrimination and social psychological theories of status-based discrimination. Despite the fact that the two theories offer explanations for the same phenomena, little effort has been made to compare them, and practitioners of one theory are often unfamiliar with the other. In this article, we assess both theories. We argue that the principal difference between the two theories lies in the mechanism by which discrimination takes place: discrimination in statistical models derives from an informational bias, while discrimination in status models derives from a cognitive bias. We also consider empirical assessments of both explanations, and find that while research has generally been more supportive of status theories than statistical theories, statistical theories have been more readily evoked as explanations for gender inequalities in the paid labor market. We argue that status theories could be more readily applied to understanding gender inequality by adopting the broader conception of performance favored by statistical discrimination theories. The goal is to build on the strong empirical base of status characteristic theory, but draw on statistical discrimination theories to extend its ability to explain macro level gender inequalities.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Tavleen Kaur Dhandra and Hyun Jung Park

This paper aims to examine the ethical beliefs of consumers with regards to their levels of mindfulness. Furthermore, it aims to investigate if mindfulness is related to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the ethical beliefs of consumers with regards to their levels of mindfulness. Furthermore, it aims to investigate if mindfulness is related to gender differences among respondents in their ethical beliefs about consumer unethical practices.

Design/methodology/approach

University students in India were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires comprising the consumer ethics scale and mindfulness attention awareness scale. Mediation analysis was conducted to test whether gender differences in ethical judgements are due to the different levels of mindfulness.

Findings

The results indicate that mindfulness is not only a predictor of ethical beliefs but also a mediator of the relationship between gender and ethical beliefs. Individuals with greater mindfulness reported greater acceptance towards the five dimensions of consumer ethics scale. Indian male participants were found to be more mindful and lenient in ethical judgements than female participants.

Originality/value

The present work is a novel attempt in examining the effect of mindfulness on the relationship between gender and ethical beliefs of consumers. The results of this study can have positive implications for organizations, managers, public policy makers and consumers.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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