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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Andreas Hirschi and Sebastian Fischer

Work values are an important characteristic to understand gender differences in career intentions, but how gender affects the relationship between values and career…

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1954

Abstract

Purpose

Work values are an important characteristic to understand gender differences in career intentions, but how gender affects the relationship between values and career intentions is not well established. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender moderates the effects of work values on level and change of entrepreneurial intentions (EI).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 218 German university students were sampled regarding work values and with EI assessed three times over the course of 12 months. Data were analysed with latent growth modelling.

Findings

Self‐enhancement and openness to change values predicted higher levels and conservation values lower levels of EI. Gender moderated the effects of enhancement and conservation values on change in EI.

Research limitations/implications

The authors relied on self‐reported measures and the sample was restricted to university students. Future research needs to verify to what extent these results generalize to other samples and different career fields, such as science or nursing.

Practical implications

The results imply that men and women are interested in an entrepreneurial career based on the same work values but that values have different effects for men and women regarding individual changes in EI. The results suggest that the prototypical work values of a career domain seem important regarding increasing the career intent for the gender that is underrepresented in that domain.

Originality/value

The results enhance understanding of how gender affects the relation of work values and a specific career intention, such as entrepreneurship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Diana M. Hechavarría

Drawing on the multiplicity of context approach, this study investigates whether female entrepreneurs are more likely than male entrepreneurs to create environmentally…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the multiplicity of context approach, this study investigates whether female entrepreneurs are more likely than male entrepreneurs to create environmentally oriented organizations. This study aims to examine how context, measured by gender socialization stereotypes and post-materialism, differentially affects the kinds of organizations entrepreneurs choose to create.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, this study utilizes Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data from 2009 (n = 17,364) for nascent entrepreneurs, baby businesses owners and established business owners in 47 counties. This study also utilizes the World Values Surveys to measure gender ideologies and post-materialist cultural values at the country level. To test the hypotheses, a logistic multi-level model is estimated to identify the drivers of environmental venturing. Data are nested by countries, and this allows random intercepts by countries with a variance components covariance structure.

Findings

Findings indicate that female entrepreneurs are more likely to engage in ecological venturing. Societies with high levels of post-materialist national values are significantly more likely to affect female entrepreneurs to engage in environmental ventures when compared to male entrepreneurs. Moreover, traditional gender socialization stereotypes decrease the probability of engaging in environmental entrepreneurship. Likewise, female entrepreneurs in societies with strong stereotypes regarding gender socialization will more likely engage in environmental entrepreneurship than male entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

The present study uses a gender analysis approach to investigate empirical differences in environmental entrepreneurial activity based on biological sex. However, this research assumes that gender is the driver behind variations in ecopreneurship emphasis between the engagement of males and females in venturing activity. The findings suggest that female entrepreneurs pursuing ecological ventures are more strongly influenced by contextual factors, when compared to male entrepreneurs. Future research can build upon these findings by applying a more nuanced view of gender via constructivist approaches.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few to investigate ecologically oriented ventures with large-scale empirical data by utilizing a 47-country data set. As a result, it begins to open the black box of environmental entrepreneurship by investigating the role of gender, seeking to understand if men and women entrepreneurs equally engage in environmental venturing. And it responds to calls that request more research at the intersection of gender and context in terms of environmental entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Bruce R. Borquist and Anne de Bruin

This paper aims to identify and categorise the values expressed in women-led social entrepreneurship based on a typology of universal values. It explores the influence of…

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1258

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and categorise the values expressed in women-led social entrepreneurship based on a typology of universal values. It explores the influence of gender and religious faith on the values that inspire social entrepreneurial organisations to engage in positive social change.

Design/methodology/approach

Inductive multiple case study research investigates the values manifest in five social entrepreneurial organisations founded and led by women in three Southeast Asian countries.

Findings

Organisations and their women-leaders express values related to benevolence, universalism, self-direction and security. Gender and religious faith are found to be mediators that influence approaches to social transformation.

Research limitations/implications

Purposive sampling and interpretive research design favour rich description but limit the generalisability of the findings. Further enquiry is needed into the gender-values-religion nexus in social entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

Social entrepreneurship is shown to be a process embedded in and motivated by prosocial values of benevolence and social justice and other values of self-direction and security. Findings provide evidence for the critical but often overlooked influence of gender and religious faith on the values foundation of social entrepreneurship.

Social implications

Social entrepreneurial organisations led by women contribute to positive social change through the values they incorporate and express.

Originality/value

Research on the link between gender, values and religious faith in social entrepreneurship is virtually non-existent.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Blandina Sramova and Jiri Pavelka

The purpose of this paper is to determine the gender differentiation of adolescents in their online shopping motivation based on utilitarian and hedonic values as an…

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1925

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the gender differentiation of adolescents in their online shopping motivation based on utilitarian and hedonic values as an expression of well-being. It is necessary to find out whether and to what extent utilitarian and hedonic values act as motivations in online shopping. The aim was to find whether boys and girls differ in their average individual values representing motivators in a specific, individual online shopping behavior, while assuming that a higher frequency of occurrence of the value areas represents a higher level of well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The research focused on finding if individual motivational areas of online shopping, in which utilitarian and hedonic values are applied, are differently represented by Slovak boys and girls. The research sample comprised of the Slovak adolescents (n=420, AM age=16.75). A modified questionnaire investigated the motivation for online shopping.

Findings

Research findings pointed to a higher degree of well-being in adolescents’ online shopping motivational structures based on utilitarian and hedonic motivations. The research study indicated different motivational structure based on utilitarian and hedonic values which are associated with online shopping behavior of the adolescents in relation to their gender. The outcomes showed that there was a larger representation of the utilitarian values related to online shopping by adolescent boys. The adolescent boys more often appreciated choice, availability of information, lack of sociality and cost savings. Adolescent boys and girls had equal hedonistic value motivations.

Practical implications

At the time of the digital marketing boom, the knowledge of adolescents’ behavior in the online shopping environment is important for marketing communication. Adolescents will represent a strong segment of buyers in the digital market in the near future. Thus, aiming for the improvement in well-being by respecting the gender differentiation, retailers could create a more effective marketing communication design that would be targeted at the current Generation Z. The findings are important for the preparation and creation of the design of the online-activities marketing in individual cultural regions.

Originality/value

There is a notable absence in the monitoring of the well-being values in adolescent online shopping in Europe, especially in the post-communist EU countries. The Slovak Republic is one of the dynamically developing post-communist countries of the EU. Its position in the OECD which measures subjective well-being is very low. The research can become a starting point for forming the theory of online shopping behavior, assuming gender unification in the areas of hedonic values and motivations not only for the Generation Z but for all online shopping consumers in the second decade of the twenty-first century. The presented research is thus practical in order to adequately set up the online communication and the research use of a diagnostic tool in the European space. The authors see the research as a pilot study, which gives the opportunity for subsequent intercultural comparison. Knowledge of gender differences and indicators of well-being tendencies in the motivational structure of adolescents may be applicable for supporting and regulating the online shopping behavior of adolescents, as well as for the explanation and theoretical modeling of this behavior.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Jawad Syed and Peter A. Murray

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the customary emphasis on masculine values in top management teams (TMTs) and offer a cultural feminist approach to improving…

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7365

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the customary emphasis on masculine values in top management teams (TMTs) and offer a cultural feminist approach to improving women's participation in leadership roles in organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on the theory of diversity and “difference”, instead of “sameness”, to demonstrate the relationship between feminine values, team member diversity, and team effectiveness. The paper develops a three‐tier approach to making better use of gender diversity in TMTs: unravel masculine hegemony in the workplace; create awareness of distinct values offered by women as team members and team leaders; and progress team diversity from the customary token representation to gender inclusive team structures and routines.

Findings

The paper suggests that TMTs benefit when learning to accommodate and integrate feminine values, along with masculine values, into an inclusive work culture that enhances teams’ performing capacities.

Research limitations/implications

Token representation is only one dimension of gendered disadvantage. Several complex forms of gendered disadvantage reside at macro‐level or extra‐organisational layers of life. Therefore, tackling masculine hegemony should involve a multilevel approach that tackles gendered disadvantage in domains as wide as work, organisation, and society.

Practical implications

Through the three‐tier framework for managing diversity in TMTs, the paper offers a practical way forward, moving beyond the current functional‐structured approach towards TMTs.

Originality/value

The paper argues that conventional diversity management practices remain influenced by a hegemonic masculine approach towards increasing women's participation in employment. Furthermore, a narrow emphasis on “sameness” instead of “diversity” of women and men reinforces male hegemony, contributing to the perpetuation of low numbers of women in TMTs.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Chung-wen Chen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender and ethics, the interaction of job position and gender on ethics, and the three-way interacting…

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1309

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender and ethics, the interaction of job position and gender on ethics, and the three-way interacting effects of cultural values, job position, and gender on ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

The individual-level data were from the 2005-2008 wave of World Values Survey data set and the cultural values were from the GLOBE study. The research contained 26,639 subjects from 30 nations and used HLM to conduct data analysis.

Findings

Results showed that men are more likely than women to justify ethically suspect behaviors. In addition, under high in-group collectivism, the ethical difference between genders tends to decrease at high job positions and under high performance orientation, the ethical difference between genders tends to increase at high job positions.

Research limitations/implications

This research depends on secondary data; it is therefore impossible for the author to control the data collection process, which could be an issue for discussion. In addition, because of limited available studies to refer to, the formation of the individual-level moderator, job position, might cause some attention.

Practical implications

Corporate education and training in regards to ethical issues becomes even more vital, especially for men, since the statistical results showed that men are more likely than women to be deviant. Meanwhile, organizations can help themselves by recruiting a greater number of females, as this study shows that females are seen to make more ethically sound decisions than males. Furthermore, under the contexts of high in-group collectivism and low performance orientation, both genders in higher job positions tend to be more unethical than people in lower positions. Since people in higher positions have the right and the power to set the ethical tone for the organization (Clinard, 1983; Posner and Schmidt, 1992), it becomes particularly essential for firms to pay close attention to ethical issues in higher job positions.

Originality/value

The study proved that the relationship between gender and ethics is more complicated than expected; job position, and cultural values can jointly influence the individual-level relationship. In addition, since human behavior is complicated, employing multilevel method to investigate humane behaviors in the field of management becomes necessary in the future.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Linda Schweitzer, Sean Lyons, Lisa K.J. Kuron and Eddy S.W. Ng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand…

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2133

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender gap in pre-career salary expectations. Five major explanations are tested to explain the gap, as well as understand the relative contribution of each explanation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 452 post-secondary students from Canada.

Findings

Young women had lower initial and peak salary expectations than their male counterparts. The gap in peak salary could be explained by initial salary expectations, beta values, the interaction between beta values and gender, and estimations of the value of the labor market. Men and women in this study expected to earn a considerably larger peak salary than they expected for others.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data cannot infer causality, and the Canadian sample may not be generalizable to other countries given that an economic downturn occurred at time of data collection. Research should continue to investigate how individuals establish initial salary expectations, while also testing more dynamic models given the interaction effect found in terms of gender and work values in explaining salary expectations.

Practical implications

The majority of the gender gap in peak salary expectations can be explained by what men and women expect to earn immediately after graduation. Further, women and men have different perceptions of the value they attribute to the labor market and what might be a fair wage, especially when considering beta work values.

Social implications

The data suggests that the gender-wage gap is likely to continue and that both young men and women would benefit from greater education and information with respect to the labor market and what they can reasonably expect to earn, not just initially, but from a long-term perspective.

Originality/value

This study is the first to simultaneously investigate five theoretical explanations for the gender gap in pre-career expectations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2021

Jih-Yu Mao, Xinyan Mu and Xin Liu

Socially responsible organizations strive to foster gender diversity values in the workplace. As women, relative to men, tend to fall victim to gender discrimination more…

Abstract

Purpose

Socially responsible organizations strive to foster gender diversity values in the workplace. As women, relative to men, tend to fall victim to gender discrimination more frequently, organizations can promote gender diversity in the workplace by either increasing female employment or discouraging job seekers who resist gender diversity from applying for positions. While more attention has been devoted to the former approach, less attention has been given to the latter.

Design/methodology/approach

A between-subjects experiment is conducted to test the hypotheses. Participants are randomly assigned to one of five conditions that feature different numbers of women in job advertisements.

Findings

For male job seekers who hold a male breadwinner ideology, their job pursuit intentions decrease as the number of women in job advertisements increases. Perceived person-organization fit acts as the mediating influence.

Practical implications

Job advertisements are purposed to attract job seekers who share similar values. Men who embrace male-dominant values are likely to resist and thwart the progress of gender diversity in the workplace. This study informs practitioners of how by strategically adapting job advertisements, organizations can discourage individuals who are likely to be a poor fit from applying for vacant jobs.

Originality/value

This study focuses on gender discrimination and resistance in a job seeking context from a social dominance perspective. The study informs organizations of the potential benefits of strategically adapting job advertisements.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Hamid Yeganeh and Diane May

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effects of cultural values on gender gap.

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6223

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effects of cultural values on gender gap.

Design/methodology/approach

First, by relying on the extant literature, the concepts of cultural values and gender gap are framed and variables are defined. Then, the relationships among variables are hypothesized and the theoretical model is constructed. Finally, empirical tests are conducted, the results are analyzed, and theoretical/practical implications are discussed.

Findings

The results show that controlling for the effects of socio‐economic variables, culture still has important implications for gender gap. More specifically, it is found that conservatism value dimension is associated with higher levels of gender gap, but autonomy cultural dimension may lead to gender equality.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to three pairs of cultural values as proposed by Schwartz. Another major limitation of this study resides in the theoretical model and linear data analysis techniques used to investigate the relationship between culture and gender gap.

Practical implications

The findings of this study could have important practical implications in many areas of social sciences such as political science, management and organizational studies, education, international law, and human resource management.

Social implications

By considering the implications of cultural values, policy makers and business leaders may adopt effective strategies to promote gender equalities at the societal and organizational levels.

Originality/value

While many studies have focused on some narrow aspects such as gender‐based differences in labour, employment, remuneration, political representation, education, and leadership, in this study, the authors relied on a comprehensive conceptualization of the gender gap. Considering the reliability of data and the variety of countries/cultures included, the results seem very significant.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Olukemi O. Sawyerr, Judy Strauss and Jun Yan

To investigate how an individual's value structure influences his/her attitudes toward others who are dissimilar and the moderating effects of age, gender, race, and

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6407

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate how an individual's value structure influences his/her attitudes toward others who are dissimilar and the moderating effects of age, gender, race, and religiosity on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 165 respondents completed the 56‐item Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), which measures the four value types of openness to change, self‐transcendence, conservation, and self‐enhancement, and the 15‐item Miville‐Guzman Universality‐Diversity Scale Short (M‐GUDS‐S), which measures diversity attitudes. The relationships between the variables were explored using hierarchical regression.

Findings

Respondents who scored higher on the values of openness to change and self‐ transcendence had more positive diversity attitudes than those who scored lower. Respondents who scored higher on self‐enhancement had less positive diversity attitudes than those who scored lower. The prediction that those who score higher on conservation would have less positive diversity attitudes was not supported. Age, gender, and race were found to interact with values to predict diversity attitudes. None of the interaction effects for religiosity was significant.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence of the predictive strength of an individual's value structure on their attitudes towards diversity. More specifically, this paper shows that the impact that a person's values have on his/her attitudes towards diversity is moderated by his/her age, race, and gender. The results suggest that diversity training needs to be more targeted and designed to take into consideration the values, age, gender, and race of the trainees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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