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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Ahmad Y. Bashir, Noreen Moloney, Musaab E. Elzain, Isabelle Delaunois, Ali Sheikhi, Patrick O'Donnell, Colum P. Dunne, Brendan D. Kelly and Gautam Gulati

This study aims to review international literature systematically to estimate the prevalence of homelessness among incarcerated persons at the time of imprisonment and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review international literature systematically to estimate the prevalence of homelessness among incarcerated persons at the time of imprisonment and the time of discharge.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review methodology was used to identify quantitative observational studies that looked at the prevalence of homelessness at the time of imprisonment, or up to 30 days prior to that point (initial homelessness), and at the time of discharge from prisons. Studies reported in English from inception to 11 September 2019 were searched for using eight databases (PsycInfo, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycArticles, Scopus, Web of Science and the Campbell Collaboration), in addition to grey literature. Studies were screened independently by three researchers. Results of studies meeting inclusion criteria were meta-analysed using a random effects model to generate pooled prevalence data.

Findings

A total of 18 out of 2,131 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies originated from the USA, Canada, UK, Ireland or Australia. The estimated prevalence of initial homelessness was 23.41% and at time of discharge was 29.94%. Substantial heterogeneity was observed among studies.

Originality/value

People in prisons are over twenty times more likely to be homeless than those in the general population. This is likely attributable to a range of health and social factors. Studies in this analysis suggest higher rates of homelessness in minority populations and among those with mental illnesses and neurodevelopmental disorders. While there was significant heterogeneity among studies, the results highlight the global burden of this issue and a clear necessity for targeted interventions to address homelessness in this population.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Gautam Gulati, Brendan D. Kelly, Conor O’Neill, Paul O’Connell, Sally Linehan, Eimear Spain, David Meagher and Colum P. Dunne

The assessment and management of prisoners on hunger strikes in a custodial setting is complex. There is limited clinical guidance available for psychiatrists to draw upon…

Abstract

Purpose

The assessment and management of prisoners on hunger strikes in a custodial setting is complex. There is limited clinical guidance available for psychiatrists to draw upon in such cases. The purpose of this paper is to develop a management algorithm through expert elicitation to inform the psychiatric care of prisoners on a hunger strike.

Design/methodology/approach

A Delphi method was used to elicit views from Irish forensic psychiatrists, a legal expert and an expert in ethics using a structured questionnaire. Themes were extracted from the results of the questionnaire to propose a management algorithm. A consensus was reached on management considerations.

Findings

Five consultant forensic psychiatrists, a legal expert and an expert on psychiatric ethics (n=7) consented to participation, with a subsequent response rate of 71.4 per cent. Consensus was achieved on a proposed management algorithm. Assessment for mental disorder, capacity to refuse food and motivation for food refusal are seen as key psychiatric tasks. The need to work closely with the prison general practitioner and the value of multidisciplinary working and legal advice are described. Relevant aspects of law included mental health, criminal law (insanity) and capacity legislation.

Originality/value

This study outlines a management algorithm for the psychiatric assessment and management of prisoners on a hunger strike, a subject about which there is limited guidance to date. Although written from an Irish perspective, this study outlines key considerations for psychiatrists in keeping with international guidance and therefore may be generalisable to other jurisdictions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Gautam Gulati, Valerie Murphy, Ana Clarke, Kristin Delcellier, David Meagher, Harry Kennedy, Elizabeth Fistein, John Bogue and Colum P. Dunne

While individuals with an intellectual disability form a significant minority in the worldwide prison population, their healthcare needs require specialist attention. In…

Abstract

Purpose

While individuals with an intellectual disability form a significant minority in the worldwide prison population, their healthcare needs require specialist attention. In Ireland, services for prisoners with intellectual disabilities need development. However, there is little substantive data estimating the prevalence of intellectual disabilities within the Irish prison system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors systematically review published data relating to the prevalence of intellectual disabilities in prisons in the Republic of Ireland. The authors searched four databases, governmental websites and corresponded with experts.

Findings

Little published data were elicited from searches except for one nationwide cross-sectional survey which reflected a higher prevalence than reported in international studies. Studies from forensic mental health populations are narrated to contextualise findings.

Originality/value

This study found that there is little data to accurately estimate the prevalence of intellectual disabilities in the Irish prison system and the limited data available suggests that this is likely to be higher than international estimates. The authors highlight the need for further research to accurately estimate prevalence in this jurisdiction, alongside the need to develop screening and care pathways for prisoners with an intellectual disability.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Gautam Gulati, Kizito Otuokpaikhian, Maeve Crowley, Vishnu Pradeep, David Meagher and Colum P. Dunne

The purpose of this paper is to study the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes for those prisoners referred to secondary mental healthcare in a regional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes for those prisoners referred to secondary mental healthcare in a regional Irish prison and the proportion of individuals diverted subsequently from prison to psychiatric settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a retrospective review of 130 successive psychiatric assessment case records at a regional mixed gender prison serving six southern Irish counties. The authors analysed demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes. Where diversion out of prison was undertaken, Dangerousness, Understanding, Recovery and Urgency Manual (DUNDRUM) scores were retrospectively completed to assess security need.

Findings

In total, 8.6 per cent of all committals from liberty were referred by a general practitioner and 8.1 per cent subsequently assessed by the visiting psychiatrist. Predominantly, these were young males charged with a violent offence. In all, 42.2 per cent of those assessed by secondary care were diagnosed with a substance misuse disorder and 21.1 per cent with a personality disorder. In total, 20.3 per cent suffered from a psychotic disorder and 10.6 per cent with an affective disorder. Of those seen by psychiatric services, 51.2 per cent required psychotropic medication, 29.2 per cent required psychological input and 59.3 per cent required addiction counselling. In all, 10.6 per cent of those assessed were diverted from prison, the majority to approved centres. Mean DUNDRUM-1 scores suggested that those referred to high and medium secure hospitals were appropriately placed, whereas those diverted to open wards would have benefited from a low secure/intensive care setting.

Originality/value

The multifaceted need set of those referred strengthens the argument for the provision of multidisciplinary mental healthcare into prisons. The analysis of security needs for those diverted from prisons supports the need for Intensive Care Regional Units in Ireland.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Richard M. Duffy, Gautam Gulati, Niket Kasar, Vasudeo Paralikar, Choudhary Laxmi Narayan, Avinash Desousa, Nishant Goyal and Brendan D. Kelly

India’s Mental Healthcare Act 2017 provides a right to mental healthcare, revises admission and review procedures, effectively decriminalises suicide and has strong…

Abstract

Purpose

India’s Mental Healthcare Act 2017 provides a right to mental healthcare, revises admission and review procedures, effectively decriminalises suicide and has strong non-discrimination measures, among other provisions. The purpose of this paper is to examine Indian mental health professionals’ views of these changes as they relate to stigma and inclusion of the mentally ill.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors held nine focus groups in three Indian states, involving 61 mental health professionals including 56 psychiatrists.

Findings

Several themes relating to stigma and inclusion emerged: stigma is ubiquitous and results in social exclusion; stigma might be increased rather than remedied by certain regulations in the 2017 Act; stigma is not adequately dealt with in the legislation; stigma might discourage people from making “advance directives”; and there is a crucial relationship between stigma and education.

Practical implications

Implementation of India’s 2017 Act needs to be accompanied by adequate service resourcing and extensive education, including public education. This has commenced but needs substantial resources in order to fulfil the Act’s potential.

Social implications

India’s mental health legislation governs the mental healthcare of 1.3bn people, one sixth of the planet’s population; seeking to use law to diminish stigma and enhance inclusion in such a large country sets a strong example for other nations.

Originality/value

This is the first study of stigma and inclusion since India’s 2017 Act was commenced and it highlights both the potential and the challenges of such ambitious rights-based legislation.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Gautam Gulati, Stephen Quigley, Valerie Elizabeth Murphy, Evan Yacoub, John Bogue, Anthony Kearns, Conor O’Neill, Mary Kelly, Aideen Morrison, Gerard Griffin, Mary Blewitt, Elizabeth Fistein, David Meagher and Colum P. Dunne

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) form a significant minority in the Irish prison population and worldwide prison populations. There is growing recognition…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) form a significant minority in the Irish prison population and worldwide prison populations. There is growing recognition that specialist services for such individuals are in need of development. The purpose of this paper is to propose a care pathway for the management of individuals with an ID who present in prison, based on expert elicitation and consensus.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of professionals with a special interest in forensic intellectual disabilities was invited to participate in a Delphi exercise. In total, 12 agreed to participation and 10 subsequently completed the study (83.3 per cent). Expert views were elicited using a semi-structured questionnaire. Content analysis was completed using NVivo 11 software. A care pathway was subsequently proposed, based on the outcomes of the analysis, and circulated to participants for debate and consensus. A consensus was reached on management considerations.

Findings

Ten experts across a range of disciplines with a combined experience of 187 years participated in the study. Current provision of care was seen as limited and geographically variable. The vulnerability of prisoners with ID was highlighted. The need for equivalence of care with the community through multidisciplinary input and development of specialist secure and residential placements to facilitate diversion was identified. Consensus was achieved on a proposed care pathway.

Originality/value

This study proposes a care pathway for the assessment and management of prisoners with an ID and is, therefore, potentially relevant to those interested in this topic internationally who may similarly struggle with the current lack of decision-making tools for this setting. Although written from an Irish perspective, it outlines key considerations for psychiatrists in keeping with international guidance and, therefore, may be generalisable to other jurisdictions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Debra E. Meyerson

I was a doctoral student in the Organizational Behavior (OB) Ph.D. program in the Graduate School of Business (GSB) from 1984 to 1989 and a faithful participant in the…

Abstract

I was a doctoral student in the Organizational Behavior (OB) Ph.D. program in the Graduate School of Business (GSB) from 1984 to 1989 and a faithful participant in the annual Stanford Organizations Conference at Asilomar, on the shores of the Pacific. I worked under the guidance of Professors Joanne Martin, Rod Kramer, Robert Sutton, and James March. I also benefited from the support and guidance of sociology professor Richard Scott in his capacity as director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and National Institute of Aging (NIA) Fellows Training Program in which I was a pre-doctoral fellow from 1985 to 1988. The reflections that follow are based primarily on my experience as a student during this vibrant period, although, as a current a faculty member within the School of Education at Stanford, I cannot resist drawing occasional comparisons between the organizations community then and now.

Details

Stanford's Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-930-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Maitreyee Das, K. Rangarajan and Gautam Dutta

The purpose of this paper is to do a thorough literature review to assess the current status of corporate sustainability practices, issues and challenges in small and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to do a thorough literature review to assess the current status of corporate sustainability practices, issues and challenges in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and, based on literature, suggest a model that can improve and strategically manage their sustainability practices in the emerging market context of Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors did a meta-analysis of the reviewed literature taken from peer-reviewed scholarly journals in the time frame of 1985-2016. Methodology used by the authors is through preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

Findings

Corporate sustainability is a well-practiced area in big organisations. However, literature suggests that in case of SMEs, the situation is different. Social and environmental practices are grossly neglected in SMEs, more specifically in emerging markets. Existing literature mentions that collaborative mode of operation, government policy and facilitation and supporting organisation culture can positively influence SME’s sustainability performance and hence improve their financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the papers in corporate sustainability literature are qualitative in nature and there is no empirical evidence of establishing this relationship in SME context. This paper tries to conceptualise the existence of a possible framework relating factors of sustainability and their role in improving business performance of the SMEs. However, the findings are purely literature-based and piloting of the questionnaire is also done on 20 SMEs in a specific geography. This is a very small and also a biased sample. Future research studies based on this paper are expected to verify the proposed relationship with larger data set catering to different industry clusters and countries.

Practical implications

The proposed model is only directional in nature. With the content analysis, the authors have tried to answer the research questions relating to factors of sustainability and its impact on business performance. To address the research questions in a more generalised way, an empirical research needs to be conducted to establish the research propositions. The proposed model needs to be validated and optimised with further research and data analysis. Once such a model is established, this can be proved beneficial for providing guidance to SMEs to enhance the sustainability of their business operations.

Social implications

The SME sector has made a significant contribution to the economic development in countries, and this sector has huge potential for growth, and their geographic spread and penetration is much higher than large organisations. Sustainable growth of this industry sector can reasonably be expected to lead to stable and sustainable development of the nation. Moreover, environmental and social best practices adopted by SMEs will also have a positive influence on society and environment in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper had done a geography wise analysis of sustainable practices in SMEs, and based on the recommendations and suggestions of different analyses, the authors developed few research propositions and also presented a conceptual model. Finally, to address the gap, it mentions some future research possibilities to test and validate the proposed model in the context of SMEs in emerging markets of Asia.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Meenakshi Khemka and Vinayshil Gautam

Innovation is the key to sustained competitive edge, especially for organizations functioning in a fast changing environment. The purpose of this paper is to understand…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation is the key to sustained competitive edge, especially for organizations functioning in a fast changing environment. The purpose of this paper is to understand select factors affecting innovation in Indian pharmaceutical organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis first tries to find relationships between the variables on a one‐to‐one basis, by conducting a step‐wise regression analysis. Thereafter, the analysis is taken a step further to find out the effect of interaction between the variables.

Findings

The findings are interesting in the sense that while the one‐on‐one analysis did not yield significant results, the interaction analysis yielded significant results.

Practical implications

An organizations' performance should be looked at as a function of the interaction effect of many variables and not as straight linear equations. This would give a more realistic understanding of the entire domain of organizational functioning.

Originality/value

This paper presents a study done in an Indian environment to understand the functioning in original as compared to adapting the frameworks developed elsewhere. This assumes relevance specifically in the post WTO era wherein the impetus of survival of the pharmaceutical industry is innovation.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Patricia S. Sánchez-Medina

Businesses in Mexico, particularly small and mid-sized companies, are faced with numerous challenges: a lack of competition, difficulty in positioning and maintaining…

Abstract

Purpose

Businesses in Mexico, particularly small and mid-sized companies, are faced with numerous challenges: a lack of competition, difficulty in positioning and maintaining oneself in the market, irrational use of natural resources, and poverty in the environment in which they develop. In spite of these problems, many are able to succeed; however, there is limited knowledge about how these businesses could implement organizational changes that would positively impact their results.

Design/methodology/approach

Using dynamic capabilities theory and survey data obtained from pottery businesses in several artisan communities in Mexico through the application of face-to-face interviews, this paper analyzes the relationship between organizational capability for change (OCC) and economic and environmental performance.

Findings

This research proves that OCC positively and significantly impacts economic and environmental performance. Results contribute to the existing literature on OCC in the context of poverty.

Originality/value

This study offers empirical research that illustrates the relationship between OCC and the environmental and economic performance of pottery businesses. Additionally it contributes to a field of knowledge in progress; that is, OCC in contexts of subsistence where poverty is a constant issue. Artisans living in this context can also develop business capabilities that contribute to the permanence of their business in the market.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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