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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Sonia Roitman

The image of Latin American suburbs has changed in the last two decades as they have become more heterogeneous with the development of gated communities that coexist with…

Abstract

The image of Latin American suburbs has changed in the last two decades as they have become more heterogeneous with the development of gated communities that coexist with poor-household settlements. Developers, local government staff and gated community residents are the main actors involved in the process of urban development of the periphery.

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Suburbanization in Global Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-348-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Sam Sarpong

The purpose of this paper is to look at the emergence of “gated communities” in Ghana. It explores gated communities as a nexus of social and spatial relations within the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the emergence of “gated communities” in Ghana. It explores gated communities as a nexus of social and spatial relations within the context of urban inequality. It is concerned with the phenomenon in which the rich now live in isolation behind barbed wires and gates, fearing for their lives and properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a sociological approach to the study. It does so initially by focusing on the social constitution of a gated community. The gate becomes a focal point of the analysis because by its function, it separates the residents from others. This spatial construction of gated communities does not only preserve the social stratification of class and demographic groups, it institutionalises this already extant stratification. The paper, therefore, uses social inequality and the status attainment theory as the basis of its work. Status processes play a part in the development of powerful inequalities, which shape the structure of groups and societies as well as, directly and indirectly, the opportunities of individuals (Berger et al., 1980).

Findings

The paper finds that although people feel safer behind gates, at the same time the fear of the outside world increases for them. Their desire to find a small area in which they feel secure, meanwhile, only expands the vast areas in which they feel insecure. It notes that security can be achieved only and much better, if the causes of insecurity, namely poverty and exclusion, are addressed.

Originality/value

The paper wades into the gated communities’ phenomenon. It contributes to the discussion in which social difference and inequality have become more marked features of urban society. Its relevance lies in the fact that it analyses this issue through a sociological perspective.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Massoomeh Hedayati-Marzbali, Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki and Aldrin Abdullah

The contribution of neighbourhood structure to residents’ perceptions towards built environment is becoming recognised. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists…

Abstract

Purpose

The contribution of neighbourhood structure to residents’ perceptions towards built environment is becoming recognised. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists to support the idea that natural surveillance is related to perceptions of safety, the empirical literature on examining the effect of neighbourhood structure and residents’ attitude towards their neighbourhood on perceptions of safety is limited, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships between natural surveillance, perceived disorder, social cohesion and perception of safety in a gated community.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 250 households from Babolsar, Iran, participated in this study. The structural equation modelling technique was employed to examine the research model.

Findings

The results indicate that natural surveillance is negatively related to disorder and is positively related to social cohesion and perception of safety. The model also shows no significant relationship between social cohesion and perception of safety in the study area. Residents perceived relatively high levels of social cohesion, but their perceptions of safety were moderate.

Originality/value

Findings emphasise the importance of neighbourhood structure and active roles of local communities in enhancing neighbourly relations and perceptions of safety.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Ainur Zaireen Zainudin and Khadijah Hussin

– The purpose of this paper is to discover the operational character of gated communities in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover the operational character of gated communities in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a small case study conducted in Iskandar Malaysia, an economic development region located in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. In the case study, 12 housing developers were interviewed, involving 32 gated communities altogether. The investigation covered the identification of the governing document used in operating a gated community, the operational purposes and scopes, the arrangement for collection of maintenance fee, and the internal governance within the gated communities.

Findings

From the analysis, it was found that two types of gated communities exist in the case study areas, namely the strata gated community scheme, and the gated community scheme (GACOS). The operational mechanism for the former is through a set of rules enforced by the government. Meanwhile, the latter is based on the arrangement set up either by the developer, where legal agreement is applicable, or through the consensus among homeowners. However, despite these differences, both mechanisms share the same intention, that is to operate the gated community based on cooperative-collective sharing arrangement.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the vulnerability of GACOS enclosure components, the case study revealed that the number of GACOS is still bigger than the strata gated community scheme. Since this perspective is lacking in this paper, it is suggested that more studies are conducted to explain the reasons behind the indicated phenomenon.

Originality/value

The most important contribution of the paper is to highlight the importance of gating experience that is heavily influenced by the local policy setting to determine the survival of a gated community; thus, demonstrating how different they are from each other.

Details

Property Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Leyla Alkan-Gökler

Gated communities, surrounded by walls or fences, have emerged as a new trend in almost all cities in Turkey, and are homogenous in terms of the socioeconomic status of…

Abstract

Purpose

Gated communities, surrounded by walls or fences, have emerged as a new trend in almost all cities in Turkey, and are homogenous in terms of the socioeconomic status of their occupants. Within these communities, several facilities and services are provided that are available only to the residents, with restrictions on access from the outside, and this has led to criticisms of social segregation. This study aims to analyze the impact of these communities on social segregation in Ankara, through two different surveys aimed at investigating the attitudes of the residents of local neighborhoods and gated communities toward each other.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes how the process of gating has affected social segregation in Ankara through two separate surveys: with the residents of gated communities and with the residents of local neighborhoods around these gated communities.

Findings

The study revealed that the residents of gated communities tended to have a positive view of the residents of local neighborhoods. In contrast, the responses of the local residents show evidence of feelings of social segregation, based on the presence of the high walls, fences and guards that are in place to keep them out of the community.

Originality/value

This study shows that, although segregation from the rest of the society is not the main reason for gating, the emergence of gated communities in Ankara leads inevitably to a socially and economically segregated city in which local residents feel excluded from these gated areas.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Teck Hong Tan

– The purpose of this paper is to determine how satisfied homeowners are with their gated residences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how satisfied homeowners are with their gated residences.

Design/methodology/approach

This study starts out by examining the data collected through self-administered surveys to find out the satisfaction levels and motivations of homeowners toward their gated homes in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. This is then followed by regression analysis to examine the relationship between motivations of owing gated homes and residential satisfaction.

Findings

The benefits that motivate households to purchase gated landed homes are “Safety and Security,” “Financial Benefits” and “Social Status” and “Lifestyle Facilities.” It also appears that the satisfaction levels of homeowners are to a certain extent, influenced by the benefits of owning a gated home.

Research limitations/implications

It seems that when home buyers purchase houses these days, a major consideration is placed on whether or not the development is a gated one.

Practical implications

The congruence and dissonance between residents and their housing situations are essential to prevent the decreasing quality of urban environment. Thus, this study can serve as a guide for urban planners and property developers in planning and designing of enclosed private residential developments. Furthermore, property developers can gain valuable insights on the gated home features that they should improve to meet each homebuyer’s needs.

Originality/value

Majority of the studies on residential satisfaction have been focussed on the evaluation of non-enclosure communities. There have only been a limited of studies examining the experience of residents in enclosed private residential environments in a developing country. Hence, this paper has contributed to the existing knowledge in the development of gated estates in a developing country.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2009

Elizabeth Chacko and Paul Varghese

Gated communities, residential enclaves that offer upscale housing and a variety of recreational and communal facilities within a walled area with controlled entrances…

Abstract

Gated communities, residential enclaves that offer upscale housing and a variety of recreational and communal facilities within a walled area with controlled entrances, are proliferating in many of India's large metropolitan cities. In this paper, we analyze the images of place and identity that are evoked in online advertisements for gated communities in the city of Bangalore in southern India. Since the 1990s, Bangalore has become known as India's premier information technology (IT) hub and a magnet for multinational corporations and high-skill personnel. The latter include Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) who lived and worked abroad for several years and have returned to partake of new opportunities offered in the country. We explore the intersection of notions of identity, home and community in a globalised world through an examination of the graphic and textual images encoded in the advertisements of thirteen prominent developers in Bangalore whose upscale gated developments cater to NRIs. The advertisements depict high-end gated communities as places of luxury, exclusiveness, high security and convenience which also offer a range of recreational facilities for individuals and families. Additionally, those who live in the gated enclaves are portrayed as persons of distinction and class who are global and cosmopolitan in their outlook and identity.

Details

Open House International, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2009

Richard W. Pouder and J. Dana Clark

Over the past two decades, a growing number of Americans have decided to live in gated residential communities. Academic research and case studies tend to focus on…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades, a growing number of Americans have decided to live in gated residential communities. Academic research and case studies tend to focus on explaining this growth phenomenon from a range of perspectives, yet surprisingly little has been written about the preservation and growth of existing gated communities. In response to this gap in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of strategic planning as a means of addressing issues that pertain to sustaining and growing gated residential communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies principles of strategic management to the process of planning for residential preservation and growth. The residential context is a golf‐focused gated community located in the mountains of western North Carolina. It uses focus groups as a qualitative means of identifying important strategic issues. These issues serve as the basis for designing a survey for community residents. The survey results provide quantitative information that enables development of strategies targeted toward preservation and growth of the community.

Findings

Results from this paper suggest that traditional strategic planning techniques provide an effective method that common interest housing developments can use to help identify and respond to issues affecting their viability and growth.

Originality/value

This paper applies strategic planning techniques as a new area in the residential planning literature.

Details

Property Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2018

Adrienne La Grange

This paper aims to classify major elements in a typology of gated communities and develop a framework that can be used to promote international comparison of this built form.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to classify major elements in a typology of gated communities and develop a framework that can be used to promote international comparison of this built form.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a survey of 77 gated housing estates in Hong Kong and interviews with major stakeholders to develop and order a classification of elements of a typology of gated communities. Principle component analysis and regression analysis are used in conjunction with insights from 20 in-depth and about 70 open-ended face-to-face interviews.

Findings

This paper explores Hong Kong’s gated communities to evaluate the relationships between the four main elements of a typology of gated communities: supply, demand, features of gated estates and characteristics of built form. It is suggested that there is a hierarchical relationship between the elements, i.e. supply and demand are higher-order elements and features of gated housing and characteristics of the housing stock are lower-order elements. The paper additionally highlights the impact of definitional and conceptual drift in key concepts, such as security, privacy, prestige and lifestyle, on developing robust typologies.

Originality/value

The paper reviews the many and varied typologies of gated communities in the international literature, classifies the elements into four main groups and posits a hierarchical relationship between these elements. This paper proposes a robust methodology for further comparative research into gated communities.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2003

Peter Jones, David Adamson, David Hillier, Daphne Comfort and Peter Shears

States that although inclusions my be complex and challenging, sometimes characterized by both ambiguity and a lack of rigour, it is usually used to cover other differing…

Abstract

States that although inclusions my be complex and challenging, sometimes characterized by both ambiguity and a lack of rigour, it is usually used to cover other differing facets. Uses housing as an example of a central issue for the modern family and its lifestyle hopes. Discusses gated residential areas as small but growing features with perhaps a privileged status in many people’s views. Concludes that the public sector may wish to keep a weather eye on gated residential developments in the future.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 26 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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