A major problem facing organisations when they operate subsidiaries in host countries is the need to maximise the cross‐cultural performance of expatriate employees…
A major problem facing organisations when they operate subsidiaries in host countries is the need to maximise the cross‐cultural performance of expatriate employees. Achieving adaptability and sensitivity involves a significant amount of attention being given to selecting expatriates who are culturally prepared and adaptive in the host nation culture and provided with ongoing support by their organisations. China is the country for analysis in this research, that examines the consideration given to selection and in‐post support provided to Australian expatriates. China is a significant site for examination of the cultural adaptability skills of expatriates as it looms large in the current and future trading and expansion plans of many Western corporations and yet very little attention has been given to recognising or developing the cultural skills necessary to effectively operate in this demanding market. This study is based on information gathered through a series of semi‐structured interviews conducted with expatriate managers in 1999. Results indicate attention being given to the expatriate selection process but a serious deficit in in‐post support.
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the topic of repatriation and the potential benefits of the use of repatriated employees to enhance global knowledge…
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the topic of repatriation and the potential benefits of the use of repatriated employees to enhance global knowledge and organizational learning in multinational corporations.
The paper provides an integrative literature review of articles published on repatriation, knowledge transfer, and organization learning 1999‐2009.
The literature review revealed that repatriation is a growing field of study in international human resources, and must be addressed as a multidimensional phenomenon in order to capture a clear picture of the challenges and potential benefits resulting from repatriation.
This paper suggests practical measures to address repatriation and identify gaps for future research.
The purpose of this paper is to examine strengths and limitations of current experiential approaches for enhancing international business education, and propose a new…
The purpose of this paper is to examine strengths and limitations of current experiential approaches for enhancing international business education, and propose a new, particularly cost‐effective approach grounded in the travel and tourism industry and specific context of international cruises.
This study combines an analysis of current literature with an examination of actual case experience.
A particularly successful short‐term experiential learning approach was used at a private university in southern California that is focused on the specific international business context of the international cruise industry within travel and tourism. The authors believe that this approach has significant merit to be included as a viable option for helping students develop important international business competencies required to compete in an increasingly global marketplace. With its specific focus on the international cruise industry and experiential travel agency operational design, this approach provides not only the opportunity to learn about general culture and business environments in the areas of travel, but also allows the practical application of many international and domestic business concepts and skills within a specific global industry context.
The present study is limited to a very few experiences and within the international cruise industry. Future applied research in international business education should provide more rigorous analyses for verifying intended student learning outcomes, as well as examine applications within other contexts within the growing field of international travel and tourism.
The approach described here provides practical information for developing similar experiential coursework for enhancing international business education, and is particularly useful for smaller educational institutions that may lack the ability to offer and participate fully in more extensive options such as study abroad and international internships.
The approach described in the paper provides a highly relevant context for international business experiential education that is economical for students and schools alike.
First makes the case that effective preparation, support, and training for international assignments to, from or within Asia and the Pacific need to be based on sound…
First makes the case that effective preparation, support, and training for international assignments to, from or within Asia and the Pacific need to be based on sound models of the skills required to meet the challenges of those assignments for the assignees themselves, their families accompanying them, those managing them, and the hosts with whom they are working. Then presents the characteristic ecologies encountered on these international assignments; identifies coping with ecoshock, developing strategies to effectively complete essential tasks in a new ecology, and maintaining motivation as the three key challenges faced in those ecologies; and describes the skills useful in dealing effectively with these challenges. Finally, presents the implications for intervention programmes to assist assignees in acquiring these skills and an illustrative training programme outline.
Recognizing the need to build global-minded citizens, higher education institutions are increasingly trying to find ways to leverage their international programs to…
Recognizing the need to build global-minded citizens, higher education institutions are increasingly trying to find ways to leverage their international programs to develop students’ intercultural competence. The MA in global leadership at Royal Roads University, Canada, created an international partnership in Ecuador that serves to go beyond the traditional student study abroad or service learning focus and instead focuses on developing competencies of global mindedness and strategic relationships. In this chapter, we present an analysis of how an international student group engaged in building dynamic partnerships within a Global South country to create change for sustainable development initiatives of mutual concern. Through a case example, we describe how these partnerships evolved and adapted in ways that enhanced the learning needs of the students while simultaneously supporting the development of new educational opportunities for Ecuadorians. To illustrate, this chapter delineates the activities that members of the program undertook to connect and develop a mutuality of relationship across diverse stakeholders in Ecuador. The authors analyze this network-building process from the perspective of cultural context, building trust and influence, and responding to social development needs of host communities.
Study used 357 Singaporean managers to document their availability for international assignments and their international aspiration. To understand factors that affect…
Study used 357 Singaporean managers to document their availability for international assignments and their international aspiration. To understand factors that affect their international aspiration, we investigated the impact of family, career, culture and host country factors and personal entrepreneurial characteristics on mangers’ international aspiration and willingness to accept international assignment. Overall, results show that family, spouse and children and personal characteristics influence both the degree of willingness travel and determinants of managers’ attitude toward international assignments. Career and attitudes of spouses will likely have a significant impact on managers’ willingness to accept international assignments. Prior cross‐cultural international experience and personal entrepreneurial characteristics are also important factors that influence managers’ willingness to accept international assignments. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
Multicultural individuals are those who identify with two or more cultures, such as Chinese-Canadians, Turkish-Germans, or Arab-Americans. They are more likely to see…
Multicultural individuals are those who identify with two or more cultures, such as Chinese-Canadians, Turkish-Germans, or Arab-Americans. They are more likely to see multiple sides of an ethical dilemma than monocultural individuals, who identify with one culture. This tendency toward ethical relativism – where ethics are seen to be relative to the context – could help multicultural individuals excel as ethical global leaders. Global leaders must manage the ethical tensions inherent in their multinational operations by understanding multiple ethical perspectives. Multiculturals’ inclination toward relativism may be driven by the structure or content of their cultural identities. The identity structure argument is based on the patterns in which individuals mentally organize their cultural identities, while the identity content argument is based on the degree to which individuals endorse relativism as a result of having internalized cultural schemas with relativist norms. We offer an exploratory test of these dual hypotheses, and find evidence to support the identity structure, but not the identity content argument. Specifically, multicultural individuals who separate their cultures are more likely to exhibit relativism in decision-making than those who integrate them. This indicates that identity patterns can drive relativism. In contrast, individuals who identify with high relativism cultures are not more likely to endorse relativism than those who identify with low relativism cultures, indicating a lack of evidence for identity content driving relativism. These findings have implications for hiring or placement managers who seek global leaders who are likely to see more than one side of an ethical issue.