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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Gary Yukl, Rubina Mahsud, Gregory Prussia and Shahidul Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to determine how task-oriented, relations-oriented and change-oriented leader behaviors are related to managerial effectiveness and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how task-oriented, relations-oriented and change-oriented leader behaviors are related to managerial effectiveness and subordinate job satisfaction, to identify incorrect findings in a recent meta-analysis of these relationships and to verify that leader problem solving is an important task-oriented behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 235 employees were surveyed to measure 11 specific behaviors used by their leader, and again two weeks later to measure the two outcome variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess how the leader behaviors are related to each outcome.

Findings

Task-oriented, relations-oriented and change-oriented behaviors were all related significantly to managerial effectiveness, but only relations-oriented behavior was related significantly to subordinate job satisfaction. Problem solving was the task-oriented behavior with the strongest relationship to managerial effectiveness. Recognizing was the least important relations-oriented behavior for job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations included a convenience sample, common source data and possible effects of unmeasured situational variables. Ways to avoid these limitations in future research are suggested.

Practical implications

The findings can be used to improve leadership training and development for most managers.

Originality/value

The results support the idea that examining specific leader behaviors in addition to broad meta-categories can improve leadership theory, research and training.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Shahidul Hassan, Gregory Prussia, Rubina Mahsud and Gary Yukl

The purpose of this paper is to assess the individual and joint influence of three distinct external leadership behaviors (i.e. networking, representing, and external…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the individual and joint influence of three distinct external leadership behaviors (i.e. networking, representing, and external monitoring) on workgroup performance and managerial effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered by surveying subordinates of 233 managers in various types of organizations.

Findings

The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that external monitoring and representing were positively related to subordinate perceptions of workgroup performance and managerial effectiveness. The effects of networking depended on a leader’s use of the other two external behaviors.

Originality/value

Understanding why a leader is effective in a particular context requires examining joint effects and different patterns of external behavior (Yukl, 2012). Past research on external leader behavior only examined one of the specific behaviors or examined a broadly defined behavior that included more than one of the three specific behaviors. The study provides new insight into the independent and joint effects of the three external leadership behaviors on managerial effectiveness and workgroup performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2009

Melody L. Wollan, Mary F. Sully de Luque and Marko Grunhagen

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of…

Abstract

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of in‐group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, and humane orientation, and their differential effect on helping extra‐role behavior in a diverse workforce are examined. Theoretical implications provide guidance for future empirical research in this area, and provide managers with more realistic expectations of employee performance in the workplace.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Harikrishnan Ramesh Varma and Ram Kumar Kakani

The theoretical concepts and frameworks from the following literature are brought in to discuss the case situation. Freeman’s stakeholder framework, Yukl’s Influence…

Abstract

Theoretical basis

The theoretical concepts and frameworks from the following literature are brought in to discuss the case situation. Freeman’s stakeholder framework, Yukl’s Influence Tactics, Johnson and Scholes’ Power-Interest Matrix Please see: Freeman, R. E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman Publishing Inc. Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in Organizations. Prentice-Hall. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1999). Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. Prentice-Hall.

Research methodology

Information required for the case was primarily collected from Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussorie, India, where the newly recruited civil service officers (probationary trainees) of India are trained. The main protagonist, a senior officer in the Indian Administrative Services was interviewed by one of the authors. Secondary data from contemporary newspaper reports and government orders were also made use of.

Case overview/synopsis

Palakkad District Magistrate Gayathri Nair was tasked with acquiring 130 hectares of land for a government-sponsored public-private partnership project to set up a railway coach factory in Palakkad. After taking the landowners into confidence and fast-tracking the administrative process through the line departments, she successfully acquired 93 hectares of land for Phase I of the project. However, the intervention from local politicians and activists halted the next phase. Gayathri was pressured by her bosses to solve the standstill in four weeks. Unable to make the owners realize the benefits of the project, she witnessed a showdown between the agitating masses and the district administration. The entire episode is worsened by the partisan media coverage. The only options open to Gayathri, as the head of the district administration, are either to go ahead with forceful land acquisition and thereby, risk the wrath of the public or abandon the project and bury the months-long back-breaking teamwork. How could Gayathri handle the situation better? What steps could she take at various stages to ensure a balanced outcome for all the stakeholders in the project?

Complexity academic level

This case is applicable for the courses/sessions in training programmes for executives, and undergraduate courses related to project management, strategic management, leadership and public policy. It is also useful for courses and training programmes on stakeholder mapping and conflict management.

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Mark O'Donnell, Gary Yukl and Thomas Taber

The purpose of this paper is to determine if the relationships found between a leader's behavior and the quality of the exchange relationship with a subordinate can be…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine if the relationships found between a leader's behavior and the quality of the exchange relationship with a subordinate can be replicated using a different measure of leader‐member exchange (LMX) and a different sample.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the result of a survey study with a sample of 239 employees who rated specific behaviors of their manager and the quality of the LMX relationship.

Findings

In a regression analysis that included several other important leader behaviors, supporting, delegating, and leading by example were statistically significant predictors of LMX.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that the positive relationship found in several earlier studies between LMX and a broad measure of transformational leadership was not interpreted correctly.

Practical implications

The results from this study identify specific leader behaviors that are likely to be useful for developing a stronger exchange relationship with individual subordinates.

Social implications

The leader behaviors identified in the present study also have clear implications for the effectiveness of top executives and political leaders.

Originality/value

More types of leadership behavior were measured than in earlier LMX studies, the limitations of broadly‐defined behaviors were avoided, and a different measure of LMX was used than in most prior studies on the relationship of leader behaviors to LMX.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Shahidul Hassan, Rubiná Mahsud, Gary Yukl and Gregory E. Prussia

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethical leadership and empowering leadership are related to leader‐member exchange relations (LMX), affective commitment, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethical leadership and empowering leadership are related to leader‐member exchange relations (LMX), affective commitment, and leader effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using questionnaires filled out by 259 subordinates of public and private sector managers. Relationships among variables were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicated that ethical leadership and empowering leadership have positive associations with LMX, subordinate affective commitment, and perception of leader effectiveness.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the independent and joint relationships of empowering leadership and ethical leadership with leadership effectiveness and the mediating role of LMX.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Gary Yukl, Mark O'Donnell and Thomas Taber

Many studies have examined outcomes and antecedents of leader‐member exchange (LMX), but few studies have explored how LMX is related to specific types of leadership…

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Abstract

Purpose

Many studies have examined outcomes and antecedents of leader‐member exchange (LMX), but few studies have explored how LMX is related to specific types of leadership behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examines a more comprehensive set of leader behaviors than any previous study on LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the result of a survey study with a sample of 248 respondents from a diverse set of industries, organizations, and occupations. Respondents rated specific behaviors of their manager and the quality of the exchange relationship.

Findings

Four of the five relations‐oriented behaviors (supporting, recognizing, consulting, and delegating) were strongly related to LMX. The task‐oriented behaviors (clarifying, planning, monitoring) were not significantly related to LMX. Results for the transformational behaviors were mixed. The relations‐oriented aspects of transformational leadership appear to have more influence on LMX than the change‐oriented aspects.

Originality/value

The present study clarifies the relationship between leader behavior and LMX. Practical implications of the findings for managers are discussed. Some recommendations for future research are provided.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2003

Jeffrey C Kennedy, Ping-Ping Fu and Gary Yukl

This chapter summarizes our current knowledge regarding use of managerial influence tactics in international settings, and reports the findings of a twelve-nation study on…

Abstract

This chapter summarizes our current knowledge regarding use of managerial influence tactics in international settings, and reports the findings of a twelve-nation study on the relative effectiveness of different influence tactics in business organizations. Rational persuasion, consultation, collaboration and apprising were identified as effective tactics in all the countries. Giving gifts, socializing with the target, exerting pressure, and making influence attempts informally were rated low in effectiveness in all of the countries. Discriminant analysis confirmed that patterns of perceived effectiveness for the influence tactics can distinguish countries in a manner consistent with their known cultural values.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-866-8

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Rubina Mahsud, Gary Yukl and Greg Prussia

Leader empathy, ethical values, and relations‐oriented behavior all appear to be relevant for effective leadership, but nobody has examined how all three variables are…

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Abstract

Purpose

Leader empathy, ethical values, and relations‐oriented behavior all appear to be relevant for effective leadership, but nobody has examined how all three variables are jointly related to leader‐member exchange quality (LMX). The purpose of this study is to examine these relationships and test a proposed model describing them.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a questionnaire from subordinates of leaders in several organizations, and SEM path analysis was used to test alternative models.

Findings

The results indicated that a leader's relations‐oriented behavior fully mediated the relationship between leader empathy on LMX and partially mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and LMX. Recommendations for future research to verify and extend the results were provided.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to simultaneously examine the complex relationships among these four different aspects of leadership (i.e. a skill, values, behaviors, and exchange relationship). The authors' measure of ethical leadership minimizes confounding with other constructs, which is a problem in earlier studies. The practical implication is that leader empathy and ethical leadership should be included in leadership selection and development programs.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Ravi Kathuria, Fariborz Y. Partovi and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of manufacturing leadership in enhancing manufacturing performance for different manufacturing configurations.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of manufacturing leadership in enhancing manufacturing performance for different manufacturing configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data collected from three levels of respondents in excess of 480, from 98 manufacturing units in the USA are used to test the study hypothesis using the cluster analysis and regression models.

Findings

Effective leadership is positively associated with overall manufacturing performance beyond the fixed effects of organizational variables, such as competitive orientation and industry membership. The manufacturing leadership, however, does not seem to affect customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The paper illustrates the use of behavioral theory of leadership in the context of managing operations with varying competitive orientations in different industries. Future research should, however, attempt to match different leadership practices/styles to different competitive orientations, and include employee characteristics, such as subordinates' prior experience, training, or skills that may influence the need for demonstrating the leadership practices differently for different competitive orientations.

Practical implications

As manufacturers pursue a combination of priorities, their manufacturing managers need to use a gamut of effective leadership practices, such as planning, delegating, inspiring, etc. Manufacturers may also note that effective manufacturing leadership enhances performance on a host of measures, such as quality, timeliness, efficiency, etc. which are directly influenced by the manufacturing group. For measures, such as customer satisfaction, manufacturing leadership needs to be augmented by managing customer expectations and by being more flexible in accommodating customers' requirements.

Originality/value

This is the first study to deploy multiple respondents to simultaneously examine the effects of competitive orientation and leadership practices on manufacturing performance.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

1 – 10 of 63