To claim that marketing is concerned with exchange is a currently accepted definition which allows wide interpretation and can be applied to almost all disciplines. A satisfactory definition should develop both inclusionary and exclusionary criteria. Marketing has an underlying purpose connected with the exchange of goods and services, and ideas can be studied only if they serve that purpose. It should be placed firmly in the economic sphere, employing strategies intentionally rendered and goal‐directed. This definition allows wide consideration of diverse subject areas, but keeps the process within specific parameters, bringing about its more satisfactory development as a scientific discipline.
Companies as diverse as AT&T, Exxon, and Beech‐Nut have discovered that when a crisis occurs, rarely are a corporation's contingency plans designed well enough to…
Companies as diverse as AT&T, Exxon, and Beech‐Nut have discovered that when a crisis occurs, rarely are a corporation's contingency plans designed well enough to effectively deal with the situation. In this case study of the Perrier crisis, a better job by the company's crisis management team could have saved both the company's and the product's reputation.
Investigates the conventional wisdom concerning consumer responsesassociated with product defect during a product‐harm crisis. Reports onan experiment relying primarily on…
Investigates the conventional wisdom concerning consumer responses associated with product defect during a product‐harm crisis. Reports on an experiment relying primarily on three generally recognized factors: company′s reputation, external effects from regulatory agencies and the press, and organizational responses. Shows that over‐reliance on these areas may mask hidden variables which can prove counterproductive to crisis abatement.
Uses an upscale female sample to extend previous research onwomen′s perceptions of their role portrayal in advertising media.Indicates that serious disenchantment with…
Uses an upscale female sample to extend previous research on women′s perceptions of their role portrayal in advertising media. Indicates that serious disenchantment with perceived portrayal of women still exists for this important group of consumers. Measures various attitudinal, company image, and purchase intention responses in addition to salient demographic and role orientation variables. Discusses the implications for advertisers using female models in their advertisements.
The objective of this research is to examine gender roles portrayal in Indian and US magazine advertisements. The impact of the socio‐cultural influences on the gender…
The objective of this research is to examine gender roles portrayal in Indian and US magazine advertisements. The impact of the socio‐cultural influences on the gender roles portrayal in magazine advertisements of the two countries is examined.
Advertisements appearing in popular Indian and US magazine advertisements were analyzed with respect to the portrayal of male and female models shown in the print advertisements. The advertisements for five products were examined and observations were recorded. The role portrayals of the male and female models in the two countries are compared and discussed.
The study concludes that there are both significant differences and some similarities in characteristics of gender roles as manifested in Indian and US magazine advertisements. The findings are consistent with those of the few earlier researchers comparing gender roles in different countries. The overall results of the present study suggest to international advertisers that in developing their advertising campaigns for international markets it is important to reflect the cultural values of the society in which they wish to do business.
It is important to take into consideration the limitations of the study with regard to the advertising medium (magazines) and the products advertised. The study was restricted to selected magazines and products; other media such as TV and other products were not considered. The Indian magazines selected for this study are popular Indian national magazines in English which target the educated, well‐to‐do, middle‐class, affluent, urban Indians who can afford to buy these products.
There are few cross‐cultural studies that have examined gender roles portrayal in US advertising vs those of developed and developing countries and this study adds to that body of knowledge. The results are important for guiding marketers in developing advertising campaigns.