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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1990

Garrett J. Endres and Brian H. Kleiner

Successfully measuring effectiveness in management training anddevelopment can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurementprogramme should include evaluation in key…

4200

Abstract

Successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurement programme should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Behavioural change and organisational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon to evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme. Finally, research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 14 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2006

John LaNear and Elise Frattura

Critical theory integrates the value of social justice into the practice of research and focuses on the manner in which injustice and subjugation shape peoples’ experience…

Abstract

Critical theory integrates the value of social justice into the practice of research and focuses on the manner in which injustice and subjugation shape peoples’ experience and understanding of the world (Endres, 1997). A critical theory perspective is specifically concerned with issues of power and justice and the ways that the economy, race, class, gender, ideologies, discourses, education, religion, disability, and other social institutions interact to construct a social system (Kellner, 2003). Thus, critical inquiry must be connected to attempts to confront injustices of society. Clearly, an effective history of special education law can better illuminate some of the injustices commonly experienced by students with disabilities. However, the majority of school administrators and directors of student services and special education have viewed special education regulations through a positivist lens. Skrtic (1995) contended that although positivism has been discredited, it is still the theory of knowledge used in modern professionalism (including education, special education, and other social sciences). Professional knowledge in this positivist framework is received and perceived by students as objective truth because the scientific process remains the mechanism for discovering and applying new knowledge. Society affords professionals autonomy on the assumption that professionals, by virtue of their access to specialized knowledge, know what is best for their clients. In a type of moebius loop construction, only the professionals can judge what is best for their clients because they are the only ones with access to the specialized knowledge. This knowledge, frequently based on “traditional” histories, becomes the pervasive, professional knowledge employed in practice. Thus, it is essential to understand the assumptions inherent in this knowledge base.

Details

Current Perspectives in Special Education Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-438-6

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Nikolaos Kehayas

The purpose of this paper is to attempt an aerospaceplane design with the objective of Low-Earth-Orbit-and-Return-to-Earth (LEOARTE) under the constraints of safety, low…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt an aerospaceplane design with the objective of Low-Earth-Orbit-and-Return-to-Earth (LEOARTE) under the constraints of safety, low cost, reliability, low maintenance, aircraft-like operation and environmental compatibility. Along the same lines, a “sister” point-to-point flight on Earth Suborbital Aerospaceplane is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

The LEOARTE aerospaceplane is based on a simple design, proven low risk technology, a small payload, an aerodynamic solution to re-entry heating, the high-speed phase of the outgoing flight taking place outside the atmosphere, a propulsion system comprising turbojet and rocket engines, an Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES) and an appropriate mission profile.

Findings

It was found that a LEOARTE aerospaceplane design subject to the specified constraints with a cost as low as 950 United States Dollars (US$) per kilogram into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) might be feasible. As indicated by a case study, a LEOARTE aerospaceplane could lead, among other activities in space, to economically viable Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP). Its “sister” Suborbital aerospaceplane design could provide high-speed, point-to-point flights on the Earth.

Practical implications

The proposed LEOARTE aerospaceplane design renders space exploitation affordable and is much safer than ever before.

Originality/value

This paper provides an alternative approach to aerospaceplane design as a result of a new aerodynamically oriented Thermal Protection System (TPS) and a, perhaps, improved ACES. This approach might initiate widespread exploitation of space and offer a solution to the high-speed “air” transportation issue.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Edgar Centeno, Jesus Cambra-Fierro, Rosario Vazquez-Carrasco, Susan J. Hart and Keith Dinnie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the largely unexplored conceptualisation of the brand-as-a-person metaphor in small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the largely unexplored conceptualisation of the brand-as-a-person metaphor in small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by examining its potential relation with the SME owner-manager, the pathways to its creation and development and the intuitive nature of this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A grounded theory approach was used, and data were collected through a set of 36 semi-structured interviews with 30 SME owner-managers in various sectors in Mexico.

Findings

The results indicate that SME owner-managers intuitively humanise their brands. The study revealed four pathways to develop the brand-as-a-person metaphor in the SME context: through personality traits, tastes and preferences, abilities and knowledge and values, all suggesting that SMEs’ brand-as-a-person metaphors are largely an extension of their owner-managers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents a theoretical framework that illustrates the four pathways to the creation and development of brand-as-a-person that are derived from the brand’s relationship with the SME owner-manager. The results of cross-industry semi-structured interviews are limited to a single culture context.

Practical implications

SME owner-managers should first undertake an introspective personal assessment of their intuitive and conscious decision-making, as SME owner-managers often make decisions in an intuitive way. The results suggest that they should act in a more conscious, responsible and rational way when formulating their brand strategies.

Originality/value

This is the first study to clarify the profound influence of SME owner-managers’ personal characteristics, including personality traits, tastes and preferences, abilities and knowledge and values, on the brand-as-a-person metaphor. This study also confirms the intuitive learning strategy formulation of SME owner-managers’ branding practices and SMEs’ need for a more rational approach to branding.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Carianne M. Hunt, Sandra Fielden and Helen M. Woolnough

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of coaching to develop female entrepreneurship by overcoming potential barriers. It sought to understand how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of coaching to develop female entrepreneurship by overcoming potential barriers. It sought to understand how entrepreneurial self-efficacy can be applied to development relationships, through on-line coaching, examining changes in the four key elements of entrepreneurial self-efficacy enactive mastery, vicarious experiences, social persuasion and psychological arousal. The study examines the impact of coaching relationships on female entrepreneurial self-efficacy compared to a control group. The participant group was matched with coaches and undertook a structured six months’ coaching programme.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a longitudinal study using a mixed methods approach. Questionnaires investigating entrepreneurial self-efficacy were collected at two time points for both the coaching and control group. After the first time point, the coaching group was supported through a six months coaching development programme. At the second time point, questionnaires were again completed by both groups and qualitative data gather via interviews with the coaching group.

Findings

The findings from this study showed that coaching relationships had a positive impact on coachees’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy, compared to the control group in terms of enactive mastery, vicarious experience, social persuasion and psychological arousal. This suggests that coaching is a development intervention which can be used to enhance self-efficacy beliefs of female entrepreneurs, thereby increasing their chances of engaging in successful business creation and operation.

Research limitations/implications

The group size was a problem, with four of the coaching group and ten of the control group dropping out. The coaching participants left the intervention due to personal reasons but no reason could be established for the control group participants leaving the study. The problem of ‘Type II’ was considered and in an attempt to overcome this problem, data were shown at below 10% (p < 0.10). It would also have been useful to collect more qualitative data from the control group.

Practical implications

An online coaching programme provided by women for women, which is tailored to the individual, can support female entrepreneurs through the difficult stages of start-up and development phases of business development. Creating more successful women owned businesses will not only provide financial benefits, but should help provide additional entrepreneurial networks for women, as well as more positive female role models. Exposure to positive role models has been found to have a direct effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. This circular affect should in theory keep on increasing, if female entrepreneurs have access to the tailored support provided by coaching programmes such as the one used here.

Social implications

Considering the current global economic climate, it is increasingly important for women to be supported in small business ownership (Denis, 2012). Countries which actively promote women entering into business ownership will ultimately share the gains in terms of wider issues, i.e. improving education and health, and economic growth (Harding, 2007). If female entrepreneurship is to be encouraged and supported, provision needs to be designed and developed based on female entrepreneurs’ needs and requirements, rather than simply conforming to traditional business support models.

Originality/value

This study contributes to learning and theoretical debates by providing an understanding of female entrepreneurs' needs with regard to business support and how this can be related to and supported by coaching. It also adds to the literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, coaching and learning by providing empirical evidence to illustrate how coaching interventions, including the use of online methods, can have a positive impact on female entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Alexander Serenko and Nick Bontis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of exchange modes – negotiated, reciprocal, generalized, and productive – on inter-employee knowledge sharing.

1905

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of exchange modes – negotiated, reciprocal, generalized, and productive – on inter-employee knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the affect theory of social exchange, a theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a survey of 691 employees from 15 North American credit unions.

Findings

The negotiated mode of knowledge exchange, i.e. when a knowledge contributor explicitly establishes reciprocation conditions with a recipient, develops negative knowledge sharing attitude. The reciprocal mode, i.e. when a knowledge donor assumes that a receiver will reciprocate, has no effect on knowledge sharing attitude. The generalized exchange form, i.e. when a knowledge contributor believes that other organizational members may reciprocate, is weakly related to knowledge sharing attitude. The productive exchange mode, i.e. when a knowledge provider assumes he or she is a responsible citizen within a cooperative enterprise, strongly facilitates the development of knowledge sharing attitude, which, in turn, leads to knowledge sharing intentions.

Practical implications

To facilitate inter-employee knowledge sharing, managers should focus on the development of positive knowledge sharing culture when all employees believe they contribute to a common good instead of expecting reciprocal benefits.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to apply the affect theory of social exchange to study knowledge sharing.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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