The production of biohydrogen from rice mill wastes, including rice bran and rice mill effluent by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877 was investigated in a batch culture…
The production of biohydrogen from rice mill wastes, including rice bran and rice mill effluent by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877 was investigated in a batch culture system and optimized the temperature and pH conditions. At 35 °C with initial pH of 5.2 a yield of 55.7±0.8 ml with 88.6 ± 0.3% substrate utilization and at pH 6 the production was 68.7 ± 0.9 ml with 85 ± 1.0 % substrate utilization. Addition of metal ions resulted in better yield and substrate utilization efficiency of the bacteria. FeSO4.7H2O at a concentration of 50 mg/l gave 79.7 ± 1.5 ml with 96% of substrate utilization. Cobalt effected the production greatly by giving 96.3 ± 0.9 ml with 95.3 ± 0.7% of substrate utilization whereas Nickel didn’t showed much effective results by giving only a maximum of 74.7 ± 1.5 ml production at 25 mg/l concentration. Conclusively, it can be stated that rice mill wastes can be used as a substrate and use of metal ions will play a key role in the enhancement of biohydrogen production.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of predisposition towards foreign brands (PTFB) for Indian consumers and examine their impact on…
The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of predisposition towards foreign brands (PTFB) for Indian consumers and examine their impact on materialism/materialist value (MAT). The study further conducts an in-depth analysis of these constructs for possible variations across consumer demographics.
Using a structured questionnaire, primary data were collected from 487 respondents in the city of Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR). While a modified scale was developed to operationalize PTFB, the measurement instrument for MAT was adapted on the basis of an extensive literature review. Statistical techniques such as Exploratory factor analysis, Confirmatory factor analysis, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis were used to test various hypotheses of the study.
The study identified five dimensions of PTFB, namely, “Reputation”, “Preference”, “Country of Origin”, “Accessibility” and “Quality”, through confirmatory factor analysis in structural equation modelling. Except for “Preference” and “Accessibility”, all remaining dimensions were found to be exerting a significant impact on MAT. The results further indicate that consumers’ PTFB as well as their MAT differs across demographics such as age, income, gender, occupation and qualification.
The paper brings to the fore useful insights for marketers of foreign brands. The findings can be effectively used for developing a more focused marketing strategy for Indian consumers by helping in identifying demographic segments that are more responsive and susceptible to the entry of foreign brands in Indian markets.
The paper attempts to develop a more robust instrument for measurement of consumers’ PTFB and provides dimensions constituting the construct for consumers of emerging markets such as India. The current research also indicates that there exists a significant variation in PTFB and MAT for different demographic segments of consumers.