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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Heather Skinner, David Sarpong and Gareth R.T. White

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework based on an understanding of the principles of popular mobile-enabled games, indicating how organisations in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework based on an understanding of the principles of popular mobile-enabled games, indicating how organisations in the tourism sector could meet the needs of Millennials and Generation Z through engaging with the existing gamified location-based practice of geocaching as an information and communication technology enabled gamified enhancement to the destination experience.

Design/methodology/approach

As a primarily conceptual paper, the authors take an inductive qualitative approach to theory building based on the understanding of an existing practice (geocaching) that is undertaken among a community of practitioners (geocachers), which results in the presentation of a conceptual framework, which is the theory itself that the authors have constructed from the understanding of what is going on and which principles can then be applied across other tourism practices.

Findings

Findings indicate that through engaging with geocaching, smaller entrepreneurial businesses even in non-urban destinations that fall outside of the remit of smart city developments, and in tourism destinations on the less technologically enabled or resource-rich side of the digital divide, can reap the benefits associated with employing the principles and practices associated with smart tourism to meet the needs of this new generation of tourism consumers who seek richer digital and often gamified tourism experiences.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the literature regarding the way many different types of tourism destinations could meet the needs of Millennials and Generation Z tourists.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Anthony Samuel, Gareth R.T. White, Helen Martin and Martyn Rowling

This study aims to expand understanding of servant leadership beyond organisational boundaries by making an examination of its role in the establishment and growth of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to expand understanding of servant leadership beyond organisational boundaries by making an examination of its role in the establishment and growth of a social movement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper’s findings are developed from four sequential, semi-structured interviews and a narrated tour of Garstang with the founder of the Fairtrade Towns (FTT) movement. It follows a theoretical framework of servant leadership (SLship) from Spears (1996; 2009). Evidence is gathered through in-depth investigation of the activities of Bruce Crowther, the architect and driving force behind the FTT initiative.

Findings

The findings discovered how SLship operates in a social, place-based setting to influence Fairtrade consumption. The paper argues the success of the FTT movement is linked to Bruce Crowther’s leadership. The findings presented draw and expand upon Spears’ ten characteristics of SLship. Utilisation of this framework sees Crowther emerge as a servant leader operating at a community level to influence FT consumption via the FTT movement.

Originality/value

The paper makes a contribution to theory by identifying the novel characteristic of servant leaders that is exploring affinity and proffers it as an extension of Spears’ framework. It also provides valuable information about the impact and importance of SLship in the efficacious advance of ethical consumerism.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Anthony Samuel, Gareth R.T. White, Paul Jones and Rebecca Fisher

This paper aims to examine the factors that influence and collectively conspire to inhibit social enterprises’ abilities to flourish in geographies of economic and social…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the factors that influence and collectively conspire to inhibit social enterprises’ abilities to flourish in geographies of economic and social deprivation. Drawing upon the extant literature, it deploys a Delphi study to rank the relative importance of these factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-round Delphi study has been used to assess the relative importance of the issues that beset social enterprises. The research panel consisted of owner-managers of nine social enterprises from South Wales (UK).

Findings

The findings indicate that the prime challenge faced by social enterprise owner-managers is balancing their dual mission. The difficulties faced in delivering social value while remaining financially viable is one that appears to impinge upon the other strategic and operational challenges they face.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of this study that utilizes expert insight is dependent upon the nature of the panel. In this instance, social enterprise owner-managers studied operated within a socially deprived region of the UK. The relative influence of the tensions that affect social enterprises in less impoverished areas of the UK or other geographies may well differ.

Originality/value

Drawing upon the extant literature that examines the tensions that surround social enterprises, the prevailing factors are considered and ranked of significance. The resulting ranking provides a crystallised vantage point for policy and support. This could be used to better inform the allocation of resources to facilitate a favourable eco system capable of supporting social enterprises who operate in areas troubled by economic and social deprivation.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Ahmed Abdullah, Gareth R. T. White and Brychan Thomas

This chapter discusses the use of an extended stage model for the evaluation of the adoption of e-business in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Empirical studies…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the use of an extended stage model for the evaluation of the adoption of e-business in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Empirical studies of e-business adoption are rare in Middle Eastern and developing countries and the chapter provides valuable insight into this region, by presenting an account of the use of the extended stage model to explore the level of e-business adoption among Yemeni SMEs.

In making this examination, the challenges and opportunities that accompany e-business adoption are revealed. The internal drivers and barriers, such as finance and skills, are recognised along with the external factors that include infrastructure and legislation. It also provides valuable insight into the macro-level sociopolitical determinants of e-business adoption that have not previously been appreciated; the study was undertaken during the Yemen Civil War in 2016.

Current adoption models imply that organisations adopt technologies in a linear fashion, gradually increasing complexity and capability. This study makes an important contribution by recognising that there are multiple points at which SMEs may ‘enter’ the technology-adoption ladder.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-577-1

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Paul Agu Igwe, Robert Newbery, Nihar Amoncar, Gareth R.T. White and Nnamdi O. Madichie

The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria and the underlying factors influencing their entrepreneurial behaviour. More…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria and the underlying factors influencing their entrepreneurial behaviour. More specifically, the study highlights the links between family, culture, institution and entrepreneurial behaviour in the African context.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a qualitative research method by interviewing 50 entrepreneurs and community leaders of the Igbo nation. Igbos have been described as “naturally enterprising and ingenious” and can be found throughout Nigeria and West Africa. Understanding the vagaries of ethnic entrepreneurship can arguably only be achieved through research that is undertaken within these socio-historically rich, traditional and cultural contexts.

Findings

Linked to the social learning theory, Igbo families provide an entrepreneurial leadership platform which influences youths through role models, providing mastery experiences and socialisation. The extended family provides a safe environment for risk taking, creativity and innovation. Also, an informal apprenticeship system provides entrepreneurial learning that prepares the younger generation to take to business as a way of life.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on a relatively small sample size of 50 respondents, which makes it difficult to generalise the findings despite the benefits of the research methods adopted in the study. Also, there are limitations to the extension of the findings to a generalised Igbo population comprising individuals who may, or may not, behave entrepreneurially.

Practical implications

There are significant practical implications, both nationally and internationally, for policy makers that are concerned with developing jobs for the growing population of unemployed youths and inclusive entrepreneurship in Nigeria.

Originality/value

The research has three main contributions. First, it valorises indigenous knowledge of family and institutional entrepreneurial behaviour in an African context. Second, it highlights the importance of the linked institutions of the extended family and the informal apprenticeship system in Igbo culture. Finally, it provides a model and an explanation of how the Igbo culture nurtures and develops transgenerational entrepreneurial behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Gareth R.T. White, Matthew Lomax and Glenn Parry

– This paper aims to examine the implementation of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) in a non-profit, small-to-medium sized-enterprise (SME) in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the implementation of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) in a non-profit, small-to-medium sized-enterprise (SME) in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-year participatory action research study is made upon knowledge transfer partnerships between the University of the West of England and the Royal Bath and West Society.

Findings

Through the adoption of EMAS, the organisation was able to identify operational improvements as well as make significant efforts to improve its environmental performance, reducing its carbon footprint by 30 tCO2e per annum and gaining new business.

Research limitations/implications

The study is made upon a single not-for-profit organisation in the UK.

Practical implications

It presents the costs, benefits and challenges that the organisation faced. Techniques that were used to successfully manage the environmental management systems (EMS) development are also discussed. The investigation identifies deficiencies in the materials that are provided to support companies that are seeking EMAS certification. To improve the uptake of these EMS and assist companies in their successful pursuit of ISO 14001 and EMAS, this supporting documentation requires enhancement.

Originality/value

There has been relatively little empirical research around the development and benefits of organisational EMS. Even less has focussed upon the specific constraints and opportunities that face non-profit organisations when implementing EMAS. This paper addresses this gap, identifying its costs and tangible benefits.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Gareth R.T. White and Svetlana Cicmil

Business improvement initiatives have benefit for both an organisation’s operational effectiveness and its knowledge acquisition capabilities. These have a synergistic…

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3815

Abstract

Purpose

Business improvement initiatives have benefit for both an organisation’s operational effectiveness and its knowledge acquisition capabilities. These have a synergistic effect upon the ability to gain and maintain competitive advantage. Among the multitude of approaches that can be adopted process mapping (PMapping) is widely used. The purpose of this paper is to examine the utilisation of PMapping for undertaking business process improvement and the resultant acquisition of knowledge among those that are involved in its performance and the subsequent use of process maps (PMaps).

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting the notion of " knowledge as knowing " and Activity Theory as the research framework, a four-year Participatory Action Research study of three organisations was conducted. Data were gathered through cyclically developed semi-structured interviews, on-site observation and instantaneously sampled field notes.

Findings

It finds that PMapping is a useful technique for conducting business process improvements and acquiring knowledge of organisations and their people. It also finds that PMaps are useful knowledge repositories that have value beyond aiding the development of improved business processes. Socialisation is a key determinant of knowledge coproduction and transfer. This study finds that it occurs in formal and informal modes between individuals engaged in PMapping.

Research limitations/implications

The choice of PMapping technique may have significant influence upon the knowledge that is acquired by individuals and organisations during business process improvement initiatives. Future research should explore the relationship between PMapping methods, their knowledge-generative potential and the usability of the resultant PMaps.

Practical implications

Organisations undertaking business process improvement initiatives should take account of those factors that mediate its undertaking and its knowledge-generative potential. The objectives of improvement initiatives and of specific activities such as PMapping need to be carefully considered. Changes in objectives need clear communication and justification, and the purpose and benefit of such changes must be weighed against the potential detrimental effect that they may have upon the workforce. Inconsiderate goals setting and changing can lead to individuals coming under significant psychological and sociological pressures.

Originality/value

This research furthers the understanding of knowledge acquisition and business process improvement in non-manufacturing environments. It identifies the challenges involved in adopting PMapping as a business improvement tool. It also provides insight into the use of the tool as a technique for fostering knowledge acquisition in individuals.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Gareth R.T. White and Peter James

– The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to process mapping (Pmapping) that incorporates the identification of environmental wastes.

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1426

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to process mapping (Pmapping) that incorporates the identification of environmental wastes.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed extension of the PMapping technique is independently trialled by ten Industrial Engineers in manufacturing SMEs in South Wales. Interviews were conducted with each Engineer after the mapping technique was trialled, in order to understand the benefits and difficulties of using the approach.

Findings

Integrating the identification of “green wastes” within the PMapping tool is found to be an effective way of focusing attention upon the environmental impact of activities within processes. Combining “green and lean” is also an approach that cements environmental issues into an organisation's continuous improvement efforts and can assist in it becoming part of its improvement philosophy.

Research limitations/implications

The tool has been trialled within a limited number of small- to medium-sized manufacturing organisations. Further examination of the tool should be conducted in organisations in different business sectors utilising a range of process technologies.

Practical implications

The proposed tool appears effective in aiding the identification of environmental wastes in manufacturing processes. It also has value in integrating environmental improvement initiatives with other process improvement initiatives.

Originality/value

PMapping techniques are well known in the literature, and in practice, but none have been identified that incorporate the identification of environmental wastes.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Andrew Thomas, Paul Byard, Mark Francis, Ron Fisher and Gareth R.T. White

The purpose of this paper is to identify the tools, methods and models that UK manufacturing companies adopt and apply in order to achieve resiliency and economic…

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1197

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the tools, methods and models that UK manufacturing companies adopt and apply in order to achieve resiliency and economic sustainability. The results of this work can assist in developing the foundations for defining a new joint resiliency/sustainability paradigm to assist industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a detailed, triangulated secondary data analysis and industry survey, the authors initially identify and then analyse the key resiliency and sustainability characteristics surrounding manufacturing operations. This paper initially reviews key literatures around resiliency and sustainability models and frameworks and subsequently draws out their key features and weaknesses. The work then details the research survey undertaken in to manufacturing companies aimed at identifying the resiliency/sustainability approaches that are adopted in companies. A sample of 72 manufacturing companies are used in the survey and from which the results are based.

Findings

Through analysing the fundamental business data of sales and manufacturing costs for 72 manufacturing companies, the authors cluster the companies in to four key manufacturing profiles. The work then shows through a more detailed analysis of the profiles that companies which are sustainable and more resilient in nature are, better engaged and connected to the development and application of resiliency and sustainability models. It was found that companies who seem to struggle in achieving economic sustainability or lack the ability to bounce back from various set-backs either do not employ such models or at best apply tools and techniques in an ad hoc manner.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides key insights in to the adoption of tools, techniques and models surrounding the achievement of resiliency and sustainability in manufacturing companies. In so doing, the paper offers a new view on these issues and with the profiling exercise undertaken, companies will be able to identify their position in relation to the survey companies. This can be of benefit to the wider industrial and academic community. The development of a qualitative assessment around a relatively small sample size has its obvious limitations and it is crucial that further work with a range of companies in the area of manufacturing sustainability is key to developing (and also validating) a comprehensive set of resiliency and sustainability characteristics.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the issues surrounding existing academic resiliency/sustainability models and through the industry survey, it provides further information on where UK manufacturing companies are on adopting specific resiliency/sustainability models. The work suggests that the resiliency/sustainability landscape of UK manufacturing companies is much more complex and that a single strategic approach towards achieving improved manufacturing performance is somewhat dated and ineffective.

Originality/value

The development of a set of resiliency/sustainability profiles including the identification of the specific tools and techniques adopted by industry is aimed at tackling directly the issues of improving company performance and is considered by the authors as one of a kind. The results of the survey provide essential information on the resiliency/sustainability landscape of UK manufacturing companies.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Abstract

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-577-1

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