Search results

1 – 10 of 95
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Gisela Bichler, Alexis Norris and Citlalik Ibarra

Studies of gang violence typically use police reports to investigate the structure of gang conflict, but overreliance on a singular data source could impede crime control…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies of gang violence typically use police reports to investigate the structure of gang conflict, but overreliance on a singular data source could impede crime control efforts. Extending networked criminology, this study aims to explore what court records reveal about the directionality of gang conflicts.

Design/methodology/approach

Controlling for the presence of a civil gang injunction (CGI), the authors use multivariate quadratic assignment procedure regression models to disentangle factors thought to account for structural patterns of gang violence mapped from 933 prosecutions involving 307 gangs associated with violent conflict affecting the City of Los Angeles (1998–2013). Specifically, the authors compare competitive advantage to the explanatory power of turf proximity.

Findings

One measure of turf proximity outperforms all other explanatory factors – gangs with turf centrally positioned in a turf adjacency matrix are significantly more likely to launch attacks, be victimized and exhibit the highest levels of imbalance in their violent involvements. Regarding competitive advantage, the number of cliques and level of internal conflict are significant. Finally, being subject to a CGI is associated with initiating violence.

Originality/value

Court cases offer a feasible alternative to police data when investigating patterns of intergroup street gang violence.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Hannah Smithson and Rob Ralphs

At a time when youth gangs and gang policy feature significantly in the discourse on UK youth, it is judicious to critique the framework and evidence upon which these…

Abstract

Purpose

At a time when youth gangs and gang policy feature significantly in the discourse on UK youth, it is judicious to critique the framework and evidence upon which these policy developments have originated. The political focus on gangs was heightened, in part, by the English riots in 2011. The reaction to the riots was a “concerted all-out war on gangs” and led to the development of the national Ending Gangs and Youth Violence (EGYV) strategy. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use Manchester as a case study to illustrate what the they argue to be the misplaced focus of the current EGYV strategy and provide a detailed critique of the strategy to date.

Findings

The paper suggests that government funded gang interventions are currently bereft of a “what works” approach and should only be implemented when the authors have significantly developed the knowledge and understanding of gangs in a local context.

Originality/value

The paper calls for a stronger evidence based policy approach to tackling gangs.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Vicky Heap and Hannah Smithson

The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise how the coalition government intends to respond to the riots and disorder that took place in England in 2011, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise how the coalition government intends to respond to the riots and disorder that took place in England in 2011, with particular reference to conduct regulation legislation and policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Coalition government policies announced post‐riots have been reflected upon and considered alongside flagship policies from the previous New Labour government (1997‐2010), as well as coalition policies introduced when they came to power in May, 2010.

Findings

Coalition policy post‐riots appears to have shifted from a localism agenda, to be replaced by a default reliance upon conduct regulation directed by central government. Furthermore, a number of these rhetoric laden policies are perceived to lack the focus and detail required to provide an effective policy response.

Originality/value

Post‐riot policy announcements are placed in the wider criminal justice context, highlighting some of the practical issues that may require consideration upon policy implementation.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Matthew Valasik, Shannon E. Reid and Matthew D. Phillips

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the temporary disbandment of a gang unit on collecting gang intelligence and arresting gang members in one of the Los…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the temporary disbandment of a gang unit on collecting gang intelligence and arresting gang members in one of the Los Angeles Police Department’s Community Policing Areas.

Design/methodology/approach

An interrupted time series methodology (ARIMA) is utilised to examine 1,429 field interview cards and 1,174 arrests of gang members that occurred from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011 within one police division.

Findings

Results indicated that the dismantling of the gang unit negatively impacted the collection of intelligence on gang members by officers, regardless of whether the officers were officially serving in the gang unit. Suppression efforts by gang unit officers also resulted in a sustained decline.

Originality/value

Given that many urban centres have specialised gang units, this study demonstrates how organisational turnover or disbandment of a gang unit negatively impacts a department’s ability to deal with local gang issues. Furthermore, these finding suggest that police organisations should consider such ramifications on intelligence-based policing activities.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Xuan Santos and Christopher Bickel

In 1987, the City of Los Angeles instituted the first gang injunction in the country. Gang injunctions are pursued through the civil courts to seriously restrict the…

Abstract

Purpose

In 1987, the City of Los Angeles instituted the first gang injunction in the country. Gang injunctions are pursued through the civil courts to seriously restrict the activities and movement of suspected gang members and affiliates. People who have been served with a gang injunction are often prohibited from everyday activities, such as wearing sports jerseys, talking to other gang members, and being out in public past curfew, regardless of age. Though often justified by law enforcement as a necessary tool to fight gang violence, we argue that gang injunctions are similar to Slave Codes, Black Codes, and Jim Crow laws, which established a separate system of justice based on race. As such, gang injunctions serve as an extension of an apartheid-like system of justice that seriously limits the life opportunities of people of color within gang injunction territories.

Methodology/approach

This chapter draws upon the oral histories of people targeted by gang injunction laws within California, paying particular attention to how gang-identified individuals are surveiled, controlled, and confined.

Findings

Gang injunctions operate on an apartheid-like justice system that punishes perceived gang members harsher than non-gang members. These laws affirm the legal tactics that maintain racial boundaries and promote a system of justice that mirrors the Black Codes following the end of slavery. The evidence suggests that gang injunctions solely target low-income youth of color, who have been identified as gang members and served with injunctions.

Originality/value

Despite the ubiquity of gang injunctions within California, there is little research on gang injunctions, and even less literature on how these injunctions shape the life course of suspected gang members. We attempt to address this gap in the literature by showing how gang injunctions are not simply about fighting crime, but rather they are a tool used to control and corral communities of color.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Daniel Scott

The purpose of this paper is to compare gang member identification methods across regions in the United States as reported by law enforcement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare gang member identification methods across regions in the United States as reported by law enforcement.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through surveys with various law enforcement jurisdictions in both urban and rural communities across the United States. Methods of gang member identification were compared across the United States. Region through the use of Ordinal Logistic Regression and Multiple Imputation.

Findings

The results reveal that there are systematic variations in methods of gang member identification across regions in the United States. Specifically, the West is significantly more likely to identify gang members through associations or arrests with known gang members, symbols and self-nomination compared to other regions. The South, Northeast and Midwest regions are significantly more likely to identify gang members through a reliable informant compared to the West.

Originality/value

Research has not compared gang member identification methods across region in the United States or examined how variations in gang member identification methods potentially impact the accuracy of reported gang problems and prevalence.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

John Pitts

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of HM government’s gang strategy from 2011 to the present. It considers why an initial emphasis upon the “troubled…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of HM government’s gang strategy from 2011 to the present. It considers why an initial emphasis upon the “troubled family” as the progenitor of gang violence has given way to more tightly focussed modes of intervention in which concerns about gang violence are conflated with other policy concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a range of policy documents over the relevant period to demonstrate a shift in rhetoric and focus and assesses this trajectory against the evidence base suggested by other relevant literature.

Findings

The argument contained in the paper attributes this shift in focus to a combination of the insights provided by new research, dwindling budgets and the reformulation of the original policy objectives in terms of recent policy priorities.

Social implications

It is suggested that in times of austerity, policy initiatives are reformulated to fit available resources but changes are presented as an improvement on what went before.

Originality/value

The paper uses secondary sources to develop and original analysis and argument.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 February 2011

James Densley

Following a recent significant rise in ‘gang‐related’ teenage homicide in London, this paper critically examines the Greater London gang phenomenon and the city's…

Abstract

Following a recent significant rise in ‘gang‐related’ teenage homicide in London, this paper critically examines the Greater London gang phenomenon and the city's burgeoning gang intervention industry. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews with gang members and representatives of the gang intervention industry, the paper presents some of the perils and pitfalls of the current approach to gangs. It argues instead for a sustained yet sober appreciation of the gang phenomenon which includes a shift away from more punitive measures towards a comprehensive and co‐ordinated approach that is both meaningful and measurable.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Eleanor Peters

Abstract

Details

The Use and Abuse of Music: Criminal Records
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-002-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Abstract

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

1 – 10 of 95