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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2010

Ryan K Zapalac, James J Zhang and Dale G Pease

There are few studies examining the marketing characteristics of intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators. The purpose of this paper is to examine intercollegiate…

Abstract

There are few studies examining the marketing characteristics of intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators. The purpose of this paper is to examine intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators from the perspectives of sociodemographics, market demand and consumption. Spectators (N=265) from seven intercollegiate women's volleyball games at three National Collegiate Athlete Association Division-I universities participated in the study. The findings indicate that there is a need to emphasise the market demand factors when marketing intercollegiate women's volleyball games.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Marcelo J. Alvarado-Vargas and Qi Zou

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined relationship on game attendance. Authors aim to validate new data published by Wall Street Journal (WSJ) and NCAA websites; and to develop a new conceptual model to examine the interaction effect of team powerfulness and team reputation on game attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on secondary data collected from the WSJ’s “College Football’s Grid of Shame” publication and the NCAA official website. Data for 123 US college football teams are collected representing 13 conferences for seasons 2010–2014. Multi-level regressions are utilized for statistical analyses.

Findings

Results reveal that not only team’s powerfulness is required for more public attendance to games, but also team reputation strengthens this relationship. In other words, team reputation plays an important role in increasing games’ attendance. Team reputation alone does not bring more attendees to games.

Originality/value

This paper studies the relevance of team reputation in the field of sports management. This paper argues that in order to achieve superior financial benefits in college football games, it is important to properly manage team powerfulness and its legal and ethical behavior. In this way, a positive reputation can leverage game attendance to a larger extent.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Shang Chun Ma and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

The purpose of this paper is to understand how team identification and country influence professional baseball team spectators’ evaluations of service quality factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how team identification and country influence professional baseball team spectators’ evaluations of service quality factors, perceived value and future behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected online from sports consumers of the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) in Taiwan (n = 600) and Major League Baseball in the USA (n = 460). A regression-based estimation method (PROCESS) and structural equation modeling approach were used to assess the relationships.

Findings

Both direct and indirect (via perceived value) effects of most service quality factors (schedule convenience, economic consideration, game amenities, ticket service and venue quality) on behavioral intentions are stronger for lowly than for highly identified CPBL fans. The indirect effect of home team on behavioral intentions is stronger for the lowly identified CPBL fans. The direct effect of game amenities and the indirect effect of venue quality (via perceived value) on behavioral intentions are stronger for the highly identified MLB fans. The indirect effect of opposing team and economic consideration is stronger for the lowly identified MLB fans. The positive relationship between venue quality and perceived value is stronger for the USA than for Taiwan fans. The relationships between game amenities and perceived value and between perceived value and behavioral intention are perceived to be invariant between fans from the two countries. Taiwan fans’ behavioral intentions tend to be directly and indirectly affected by service quality factors, whereas US fans’ behavioral intentions tend to be indirectly affected by service quality factors.

Originality/value

The study provides empirical evidence of the moderating role of team identification associated with the relationships between separate service quality factors, perceived value and behavioral intentions among consumers of a professional spectator sports in two different countries.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Peter A. Salzarulo, Timothy C. Krehbiel, Stephen Mahar and Lance S. Emerson

Today's economic climate has fueled intense competition for entertainment dollars, including those spent on professional and intercollegiate sports. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Today's economic climate has fueled intense competition for entertainment dollars, including those spent on professional and intercollegiate sports. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight and demonstrate the use of the Six Sigma methodology as a way to improve event attendance in a sports marketing setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The research utilizes the define‐measure‐analyze‐improve‐control (DMAIC) sequence to evaluate customer requirements and develop recommendations. Surveys, focus groups, and descriptive statistics comprise an important set of tools utilized to accomplish this aim.

Findings

The paper concludes that Six Sigma can be readily applied to a sports marketing setting by explicitly demonstrating the steps employed to reverse a four‐year decline in attendance for a collegiate men's basketball program.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in detailing the use of Six Sigma, a traditional quality improvement methodology, in a sports marketing setting. It also highlights the unique elements associated with fully implementing a Six Sigma project in such a seasonal setting as an athletic enterprise.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Yi Zhang, Minkil Kim, Jerred Junqi Wang and Brenda Pitts

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club…

Abstract

Purpose

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club members in the USA, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the opportunities and marketing efforts needed for Asian sports to survive and thrive in North America, in which consumer demand factors assessing core program features of table tennis clubs were found to be very influential of cognitive, affective, and behavioral consumptions of table tennis club members.

Design/methodology/approach

Through conducting a review of literature, observations of club operations, and interviews of club administrators and club members representing various table tennis clubs, a preliminary questionnaire was formulated for this study. The initial questionnaire was submitted to a panel of five experts, for a test of content validity. By incorporating their suggestions, editing was made to improve a number of the items in the questionnaire. Data collection took place in two national table tennis tournaments, two local tournaments, and six table tennis clubs. Procedures in SPSS 19.0 (SPSS, 2009) and Mplus 5.21 were carried out for data analyses.

Findings

The findings of this study are that market demand factors would be significantly related to consumer perceived benefits and perceived value, and in turn related to consumer satisfaction of table tennis club membership. The market demand factors had a positive impact on perceived value and benefits confirmed the theoretical framework and previous research findings, which also made a practical sense that a table tennis club needs to offer product features and meet expectations of its current and potential members in order to enhance program value and benefits perceived by its members.

Originality/value

The past two decades have marked the speediest rise of a globalized sport production and consumption trend. In an era of globalized sport marketplace, sports have become a business commodity to meet the needs of commerce. For an Asian sport to penetrate into the North American marketplace as table tennis has done, it would be wise to develop regional network, strategies, product, and promotions. It is expected that table tennis as a popular Asian sport will continue being spread to other parts of the world; thus, the findings of this study have potential relevance to promoting table tennis globally.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Kai Li, Huynh Van Nguyen, T.C.E. Cheng and Ching-I Teng

As technology-created gamers’ representations, avatars are influential in communication among online gamers. However, there is scant research on how avatars…

Abstract

Purpose

As technology-created gamers’ representations, avatars are influential in communication among online gamers. However, there is scant research on how avatars’ characteristics impact gamers’ friendly behaviour via avatars, i.e., avatar friendliness, and how avatar friendliness is related to online gamer loyalty. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research model grounded in the theory of embodied cognition to examine the impacts of perceived avatar appearance agreeableness, attractiveness and height on avatar friendliness and online gamer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect 1,384 responses from online gamers and use structural equation modelling for hypothesis testing.

Findings

The authors find that perceived avatar appearance agreeableness and attractiveness are positively related to avatar friendliness, while perceived avatar height is negatively related to avatar friendliness. Avatar friendliness, in turn, is positively related to online gamer loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This study assessed gamers’ perceptions using a cross-sectional design. Future works could use a big data approach to collect behavioural and longitudinal data. Moreover, future works could measure avatar height using pixels.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the e-commerce literature by inventing the new constructs of perceived avatar appearance agreeableness and avatar friendliness, and conducting the first study of using avatar friendliness to explain the impacts of the three avatar characteristics on online gamer loyalty. The findings also provide novel insights for e-commerce managers to effectively build a loyal gamer base.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

James J. Zhang, Eddie T. C. Lam and Daniel P. Connaughton

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between general market demands and consumption levels of professional sport consumers. This study was…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between general market demands and consumption levels of professional sport consumers. This study was accomplished through: (a) validating the theoretical constructs of general market demand variables by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis, (b) examining the predictability of general market demand factors to consumption levels of live and televised sporting events, and (c) investigating the relationships between sociodemographic and general market demand factors. Five hundred and twenty-five residents of a major southern US city were interviewed using a questionnaire that included eight sociodemographic variables, 12 market demand variables under three factors (Game Attractiveness, Economic Consideration, and Marketing Promotion), and 10 professional sporting event consumption variables. The factor structure of the general market demand variables was confirmed. Regression analyses revealed that market demand factors were positively (p < .05) predictive of professional sport consumption. Sociodemographic variables were significantly (p < .05) related to the market demand factors. The findings imply that professional sport teams should highlight the market demand variables and adopt differential marketing procedures for various sociodemographic segments in their marketing practice.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Ching-I Teng

Online games are popular electronic commerce platforms in which gamers use avatars to interact with others. Avatar identification (the extent to which gamers regard…

Abstract

Purpose

Online games are popular electronic commerce platforms in which gamers use avatars to interact with others. Avatar identification (the extent to which gamers regard avatars as an extension of themselves) is known to be related to online gamer loyalty. However, few studies have examined how avatars could be designed to enhance avatar identification and online gamer loyalty, indicating a gap. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contextualize self-affirmation theory into online gaming contexts, identified key theoretical elements and examined how they are related to avatar identification and online gamer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 1,348 massively multi-player online role-playing game players, and their responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The analytical results indicate that irreplaceability within a team and avatar customization are positively related to unique avatar image, while avatar customization is positively related to positive avatar image. Moreover, avatar physical attractiveness and avatar ability to achieve are positively related to positive avatar image. Both unique and positive images of an avatar (as perceived by the user) are positively related to avatar identification, and further to online gamer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study proposes new constructs: irreplaceability within a team, avatar ability to achieve, unique avatar image and positive avatar image. Such new constructs provide insights to aid electronic commerce managers in avatar design, thus instilling gamer identification with avatars, and thus loyalty.

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Chuang-Chun Liu

Extending on flow theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore how interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs…

Abstract

Purpose

Extending on flow theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore how interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs (perceived attractiveness, personal involvement, and perceived uncertainty) impact flow experience; this study also investigates how flow experience is related to replay intention. Furthermore, this is the first study to explore the relationship between perceived uncertainty and challenges in online gaming.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed research model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from online game players. The evaluation was conducted using partial least squares of structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings revealed that flow experience was a significant predictor of replay intention. Four antecedents of flow (telepresence, focused attention, skills, and challenges) had a positive influence on flow experience. Interactivity (human-to-human interactivity and human-to-machine interactivity) and personal beliefs (perceived attractiveness, personal involvement, and perceived uncertainty) influenced these antecedents. Moreover, human-to-human interactivity exerted a greater impact on the flow experience antecedents than did human-to-machine-associated interactivity. This study reveals that human-to-human interactivity is most crucial to the effective development of online games. In addition, the author find that utilitarian motivations have positive moderating effects on the relationship between flow and replay intention. Finally, additional practical and managerial implications are discussed.

Originality/value

Few empirical studies have explored the moderating role of utilitarian motivations. This original study analyzed how utilitarian motivations moderate the relationships between flow and replay intention of online game players. Moreover, this is one of the first studies to explore the characteristic of uncertainty and its role in the context of online game playing.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Max Sjöblom, Joseph Macey and Juho Hamari

Esports (electronic sports) are watched by hundreds of millions of people every year and many esports have overtaken large traditional sports in spectator numbers. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Esports (electronic sports) are watched by hundreds of millions of people every year and many esports have overtaken large traditional sports in spectator numbers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate spectating differences between online spectating of esports and live attendance of esports events. This is done in order to further understand attendance behaviour for a cultural phenomenon that is primarily mediated through internet technologies, and to be able to predict behavioural patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the Motivation Scale for Sports Consumption to investigate the gratifications spectators derive from esports, both from attending tournaments physically and spectating online, in order to explore which factors may explain the esports spectating behaviour. The authors investigate how these gratifications lead into continued spectatorship online and offline, as well as the likelihood of recommending esports to others. The authors employ two data sets, one collected from online spectators (n=888), the other from live attendees (n=221).

Findings

The results indicate that online spectators rate drama, acquisition of knowledge, appreciation of skill, novelty, aesthetics and enjoyment of aggression higher than live attendees. Correspondingly, social interaction and physical attractiveness were rated higher by live attendees. Vicarious achievement and physical attractiveness positively predicted intention to attend live sports events while vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted future online consumption of esports. Finally, vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted recommending esports to others.

Originality/value

During the past years, esports has emerged as a new form of culture and entertainment, that is unique in comparison to other forms of entertainment, as it is almost fully reliant on computer-human interaction and the internet. This study offers one of the first attempts to compare online spectating and live attendance, in order to better understand the phenomenon and the consumers involved. As the growth of esports is predicted to continue in the coming years, further understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for multiple stakeholder groups.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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