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The paper critically reviews women managers' experiences of managing transition in post‐Soviet Belarus. The main aim of the paper is to explore the emerging learning…
The paper critically reviews women managers' experiences of managing transition in post‐Soviet Belarus. The main aim of the paper is to explore the emerging learning experiences and learning practices of women managers in Belarus who are working in small and medium‐size business enterprises.
The paper commences with an exploration of the country context. It then seeks to draw attention to ongoing economic, political and cultural transformations within Belarus with a view to highlighting ways in which these transformations have impacted on the professional identities of women in Belarus in the post‐Soviet era. Interviews with 16 female managers were constructed to investigate specific issues such as how women managers in Belarus learn to be managers, how they perceive their own positions within organisations, the ways in which women managers use learning strategies as sense‐making mechanisms, and the career‐related obstacles faced by women managers in Belarus.
The findings indicate that women managers have adopted a variety of learning strategies to adjust to the changing nature of Belarusian business culture. These strategies involve drawing on multiple notions of a feminine work identity, which both resists and reaffirms traditional gender roles. The findings highlight women have learn to cope with a fragmented learning organisational context that is devoid of established networking and mentoring systems that are accessible normally to women managers. As such, the interview data indicate that women are developing and adopting individualised learning strategies and mechanisms to enable them to survive and succeed within business organisations.
This research describes experiences of middle‐aged, urban, educated women employed in small and medium business enterprises without taking into account generational, ethnic and other differences.
Although this paper was written from the experiences of women in Belarus, it will be of interest to women experiencing career‐related obstacles.
This paper aims to provide an integrated model of nation branding, propose a comprehensive definition of this concept and differentiate between nation branding and other…
This paper aims to provide an integrated model of nation branding, propose a comprehensive definition of this concept and differentiate between nation branding and other related constructs.
To analyze nation branding academic literature, this paper used a systematic literature review approach to investigate academic studies related to nation and country branding. All relevant studies on the nation and country branding between 1996 and mid-2021 were extracted from six selected databases, including Elsevier’s Science Direct, Emerald, Sage, Wiley, Springer and Jstor, by using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis process. The reviewed papers were coded and analyzed to extract themes and concepts.
The results of this paper show that nation branding is influenced by six main factors, namely, business and marketing, political, social and cultural, economic and labor, international and environmental factors; it comprises one key component, that is, nation branding; it results in five major consequences, including social, economic and financial, business, international and political consequences, and is moderated mainly by socio-demographic variables. Additional contributions of this paper are the proposal of a comprehensive definition of nation branding based on the extant literature and identifying nation branding differences with other constructs that sometimes have been previously used interchangeably with nation branding. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research in the field.
This paper uses the themes and concepts uncovered by the analysis to conceptualize nation branding, provides an integrated model of nation branding and distinguishes it from other related branding concepts. This paper also summarizes what nation branding is versus what it is not.