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Article

Yu Kyoum Kim, Galen T Trail and Marshall J Magnusen

In sports consumer behaviour literature only a small amount of variance in attendance is explained bymotives. One possible explanation for this is the existence of a third…

Abstract

In sports consumer behaviour literature only a small amount of variance in attendance is explained by motives. One possible explanation for this is the existence of a third factor which moderates this relationship between the motives and attendance. Individuals who strongly identify with a sports team demonstrate distinctly different behavioural patterns from weakly identified individuals. Identification may, therefore, serve as a moderator. Accordingly, two hypotheses are generated: (a) the relationship between motives and attendance intention ranges from weak to moderate; and (b) the overarching construct of Identification (Team Identification) moderates the influence of motives on attendance intention. Participants were 207 United States of America National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA student-subjects. Instrumentation includes measures of motivation, points of attachment and attendance intention. Through hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis, regression analyses and latent variable scores approach, the results largely support both hypotheses.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Galen. T. Trail and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The…

Abstract

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Brian P. McCullough and Galen T. Trail

Transformative marketing provides a way to encourage positive behaviors. This approach can be applied to community intervention organizations, such as the Special…

Abstract

Purpose

Transformative marketing provides a way to encourage positive behaviors. This approach can be applied to community intervention organizations, such as the Special Olympics. Such organizations bring services to provide activity, healthy eating, proper healthcare and caretaker education. This study examines one campaign of the 2018 Special Olympics USA Summer Games focusing on health and wellness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed caretakers about these campaigns including their attitudes toward health and wellness and other basic psychographics (i.e. needs/values) to inform a transformative marketing campaign directed to engaging the caretakers.

Findings

The hierarchical regression shows us is that all the variables combined explain 26.9% of intentions to help their athlete eat as healthily as possible, with needs/values explaining the most variance, even after all of the other variables are in the model. The authors discuss their results and the practical applications of their findings to improve transformative marketing campaigns to achieve desirable social outcomes through the Special Olympics.

Originality/value

The authors identified what variables uniquely contributed to the intention by caretakers of ID athletes to engage in health and wellness campaigns that benefit their athletes. Future research can apply the results to developing similar sustainability (environmental, social or economic) campaigns using transformative marketing perspectives that will more positively benefit target markets in and through sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Michelle Gacio Harrolle and Galen T. Trail

Sports management and marketing research has failed to study the dimensions of Latino sports consumption behaviour and fan identification. This research examined the…

Abstract

Sports management and marketing research has failed to study the dimensions of Latino sports consumption behaviour and fan identification. This research examined the relationships among ethnic identity, acculturation, identification with sport in general, and identification with specific sports for Latinos living in the United States. Even though the four models used fit the data well, in general, ethnic identity and acculturation had little or no influence on sports identification. Hence sports marketers should not create marketing campaigns solely based on the assumption that Latinos or any ethnic group are necessarily fans of any particular sport (e.g. soccer).

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Yu Kyoum Kim, Galen T Trail, Boyun Woo and James Zhang

The purpose of this research was to develop the Sports Consumer-Team Relationship Quality Scale (SCTRQS). In Study I, content validity was established through a…

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to develop the Sports Consumer-Team Relationship Quality Scale (SCTRQS). In Study I, content validity was established through a comprehensive review of literature and tests of content validity, including expert review. Based on the assessment of psychometric properties, theoretical relevance of the items and parsimoniousness of the scale, items were refined for two following studies. Results indicated that the SCTRQS would be a valid tool for marketers and managers to assess relationship quality with their consumers for marketing strategies, effectiveness of advertising campaigns, sponsorship value and value for stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Jessica R. Braunstein‐Minkove, James J. Zhang and Galen T. Trail

As a fixture in the mainstream media landscape, athletes, coaches, and sport celebrities are regularly used to promote products from sports equipment to high‐end watches…

Abstract

Purpose

As a fixture in the mainstream media landscape, athletes, coaches, and sport celebrities are regularly used to promote products from sports equipment to high‐end watches. With an intrinsic connection between athlete endorsers and sport‐related products, it is the use of these endorsers to promote non‐sport products that raises questions about their appropriateness as a marketing tool. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop an explanatory model that analyzes athlete endorser effectiveness in promoting non‐sport products.

Design/methodology/approach

An holistic approach was taken, examining the structural relationships of identification with an athlete and his/her sport to product‐endorser congruency, perceived value, and purchase intentions, providing a preliminary overview of key socio‐psychological factors that may influence the purchase intentions of endorsed products.

Findings

This paper provides empirical insights about the effectiveness of athlete endorsers for non‐sport products. The result was a 42‐item, five factor model (i.e. Athlete Identification, Sport Identification, Match‐Up, Perceived Value, and Purchase Intention) that fit the data adequately well.

Research limitations/implications

This model provides academicians with a synthesized review, and application of the various factors that play a role in athlete endorser selection and viability. This model serves as a framework for future analysis.

Practical implications

The paper includes a tactical approach that, when re‐evaluated, can provide a model to adapt and adopt in the selection of product or brand endorsers.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to develop a model to test the oft adopted, yet highly risky, method of selecting an athlete to endorse products that do not have an intrinsic link to the sport in which he or she is employed.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article

Galen T. Trail, Jeffrey D. James, Hyungil Kwon, Dean Anderson and Matthew J. Robinson

– The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Oliver categorized each of the two dimensions into high and low, creating a two-by-two framework: low fortitude and low-community/social support (Product Superiority group); low fortitude and high-community/social support (Village Envelopment group); high fortitude and low-community/social support (Determined Self-isolation group); high fortitude and high-community/social support (Immersed Self-identity group). The paper uses two samples. The sample from Study 1 was season ticket holders (n=199) of a West Coast (USA) Major League Baseball team. Results indicated preliminary support for Oliver’s four groups and good psychometric properties of the fan community scale and the individual fortitude scale (IFS). Study 2 focussed on attendees (n=458) at two East Coast (USA) Major League Baseball venues.

Findings

The multivariate GLM indicated significant differences among Oliver’s groups, but the variance explained was small on past, current, and future attendance. However, in terms of actual games attended, the Immersed Self-identity group attended between 2.5 and 3 times as many games as the Village Envelopment group over the two years, and more than twice as many games as the Product Superiority group. The groups differed substantially on consumption of product extensions: 22.5 percent of the variance in merchandise purchasing was explained by the grouping, 31.9 percent of broadcast media consumption, and 24.9 percent of print media consumption. In all cases, those in the Immersed Self-identity group consumed significantly more than the Product Superiority and Determined Self-isolation groups.

Originality/value

The paper reveals that sport marketers can focus on the Immersed Self-identity segment as the segment most likely to consume the product, repurchase, and purchase product extensions.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Rui Biscaia, Galen Trail, Stephen Ross and Masayuki Yoshida

Previous research has focused on the antecedents of fan loyalty or the link between fans and the team on sponsorship reactions, but no comprehensive framework has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has focused on the antecedents of fan loyalty or the link between fans and the team on sponsorship reactions, but no comprehensive framework has been developed to combine these perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated framework of how team brand experience during the season impacts sponsorship brand experience.

Design/methodology/approach

To create the conceptual model, a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted in electronic databases and journal reference lists. The authors identified constructs from prior research aimed at understanding sponsorship effectiveness. These constructs not only included aspects of the sponsorship brand experience, but also aspects within the team brand experience that form the link between consumers’ responses derived from team-related stimuli and the responses evoked by sponsor-related stimuli.

Findings

This conceptual framework yields a set of 11 propositions regarding fans’ interactions with both team and sponsorship brands highlighting how to strengthen the bond between fans, teams, and sponsors. It provides a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon and identifies opportunities to increase fan support and the appeal of professional teams to potential sponsors.

Originality/value

This study extends previous research by providing a unique conceptual framework that highlights the importance of understanding how fans view both the team brand and the sponsor brand. Several suggestions for future studies and strategies to increase the benefits for both teams and sponsors can be drawn from this framework.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Walt Crawford

While bargains abound in the personal computing field, they must be evaluated considering your needs—and it is sometimes hard to distinguish between inexpensive and merely…

Abstract

While bargains abound in the personal computing field, they must be evaluated considering your needs—and it is sometimes hard to distinguish between inexpensive and merely cheap alternatives. The author discusses low‐priced software alternatives, noting how to look for bargains and a few specific examples. The PC‐related media scene continues to change, as does the slice of it reviewed for “Notes on the Media.” In the second portion of this article, the author offers some typically opinionated notes on some current publications. The author concludes with the usual roundup of comparative reviews and other notes on the PC literature for January‐March 1995. It was a big quarter for printer reviews, with few desktop computer comparisons—and life's about to get more interesting for those who prefer the Macintosh operating system: the clones are coming!

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

Walt Crawford

When you make effective use of a personal computer, that use is likely to change over time in ways that may not be apparent. A look back as little as six months or a year…

Abstract

When you make effective use of a personal computer, that use is likely to change over time in ways that may not be apparent. A look back as little as six months or a year earlier may reveal some surprises. Those surprises may tell you something about your own priorities, conscious or unconscious. The author introduces his new column environment and what those changes may mean. He also discusses the column itself, and why Common Sense Personal Computing is no more. The author also discusses some changes in the periodical literature of personal computing, introducing a major new magazine. Finally, the author begins an ongoing discussion of items from the periodical literature with some of the hot topics from June‐August 1988.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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