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This chapter investigates the environmental behaviours of three, four- and five-star hotels in Azuay (Ecuador). The methodology involved a quantitative research that…
This chapter investigates the environmental behaviours of three, four- and five-star hotels in Azuay (Ecuador). The methodology involved a quantitative research that measured the relationship between environmental responsibility (Gallardo, Sanchez, & Corchuelo, 2013) and stakeholder engagement (Kostova & Roth, 2002; Llamas-Sanchez, García-Morales, & Martin-Tapia, 2013; Vargas-Sánchez & Riquel-Ligero, 2012). The main findings suggest that the managers of the hotels implement environmental practices as they reduce waste, gas emissions and recycle materials. These practices are aligned with Ecuador’s extant legislation and regulations. In conclusion, this contribution implies that the hotels’ managers ought to communicate about their environmental responsibility with their stakeholders, including the employees, suppliers and customers.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), set specific targets for halting biodiversity loss, including the need to establish 10 per cent of coastal/marine areas…
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), set specific targets for halting biodiversity loss, including the need to establish 10 per cent of coastal/marine areas conserved through, among other things, well‐connected systems of protected areas by 2020. The reality is that whereas nearly 15 per cent of land is protected, just over 1 per cent of marine space is similarly protected. The challenge is to reach “a global representative system” of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), recognizing that countries need to establish cooperative mechanisms at ecoregion level. The purpose of this paper is to address the options and trends for countries to develop transboundary cooperation through MPAs.
The authors address several case studies, focusing on political, governance and financing frameworks.
The main findings revealed that countries use MoU, MoA or Joint Declaration supported on international conventions as the WHC, Ramsar Convention and CMS. Governance models seem to include political/management/technical levels, with political decisions translated into action plans carried out by joint committees, supported by national institutions and scientific/technical boards. Also the involvement of civil society in management is a growing driving force. Financing transboundary MPAs is going through an evolutionary process, from an exclusive binomial national budgets/UNEP‐GEF to a wider financial net through ecotourism income and private donors.
The different solutions found point out myriad possibilities where transboundary cooperation is envisaged. States can benefit from the experiences already acquired to jointly achieve the target of protecting 10 per cent of the marine environment by 2020.
ECUADOR: Galapagos spill to fuel government criticism
The purpose of this perspective paper is to answer the question of why some multinational corporations (MNCs) do not evolve and fail to avoid retrogression by natural…
The purpose of this perspective paper is to answer the question of why some multinational corporations (MNCs) do not evolve and fail to avoid retrogression by natural selection in international business (IB) and to introduce eight papers selected for this special issue.
The authors conceptually discuss the reasons for MNC failure by illustrating key motivations behind foreign direct investment (FDI) undertaken by MNCs based on internalization theory, the OLI paradigm and the OILL (i.e. OLI plus the learning motivation) paradigm. Then, the authors develop an evolutionary perspective to explore the survival of the fittest in the global markets and the natural selection of MNCs.
The eight papers selected for this special issue expand the authors’ understanding of globalized organizations' challenges, evolution and decline as well as offering a distinct opportunity to reconsider diverse extant theories about MNCs by suggesting an extension that accounts for the rise of various globalized organizations particularly in and from emerging markets.
Despite increased numbers of MNCs, which struggle to survive and are faced with great risk of failure, the authors’ understanding of them still remains in infancy. While scholars have investigated diverse topics related to MNCs, existing studies have developed theories predominantly emphasizing MNC success. Thus, conventional theories in IB such as internalization theory and the OLI paradigm may not be sufficiently applicable to explain the phenomenon of MNC failure (i.e. MNC decline). Based on authors’ discussions, the authors believe this is an appropriate time to refine mainstream IB theories by concurrently considering both evolution and retrogression.