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The purpose of this paper is as follows: first, it aims to explain the overall economic implications of the trans-pacific partnership (TPP). Second, it aims to provide an…
The purpose of this paper is as follows: first, it aims to explain the overall economic implications of the trans-pacific partnership (TPP). Second, it aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the TPP’s quantitative impact on an upper-middle economy such as Mexico, as well as on the USA.
The analysis is performed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model.
The results suggest that in the short run, both Mexico and the USA would slightly benefit from the TPP. Tariff reductions would lead to less bilateral trade between Mexico and the USA and the stronger integration of both countries with the rest of the TPP members. The opposite is true after a decrease in non-tariff barriers (NTBs). Overall, in terms of the impact on Mexico, trade integration with the rest of the TPP members prevails. This suggests that a TPP without the USA could still be beneficial.
Previous studies on the TPP have mainly focused on its impact for the USA, which is also analysed in the present study. The effects of the TPP are estimated for a broad set of micro and macroeconomic variables, paying particular attention to the reductions of NTBs.
The purpose of this paper was to develop a loaf bread enriched with naranjilla (lulo) fruit (shells, seeds and pulp) and determine the technical quality, sensory…
The purpose of this paper was to develop a loaf bread enriched with naranjilla (lulo) fruit (shells, seeds and pulp) and determine the technical quality, sensory acceptability and bioavailability (by in vitro digestion) of antioxidant components.
Loaf bread was prepared by using a no-time bread-making process. The crumb moisture, specific volume, crust and crumb color, texture profile analysis, analysis of the crumbs' alveoli, sensory evaluation, in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and antioxidant capacity were determined. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05).
The specific volume was reduced by 21% (4.62 cm3/g, p < 0.0001), and the hardness was increased by 70% (2.9 N, p < 0.0001). Enrichment of the bread with naranjilla fruit (NF) contributes a yellowish coloration to the bread, which was very well accepted by the consumers and could be considered a natural colorant alternative. Moreover, the sensory evaluation indicated that the analyzed attributes (appearance, color, odor, taste, firmness and overall quality) of the naranjilla bread presented scores higher than 6.5 of 9 points hedonic scale. Naranjilla in the bread formulation had good acceptability by consumers. Naranjilla-enriched bread had an increase in total phenolic (TP)compounds and total carotenoids. In the product without digestion, naranjilla bread increased 1.7 times for TP, 50 times for CT and 1.3 times for TEAC, compared to the control bread (p < 0.0001). The percentage of bioaccessibility for fresh bread without digestion was 39.2 and 53.9% for the control and naranjilla bread, respectively. The addition of NF contributes to a higher TP compounds content and favors its bioavailability.
For bread production, fruits that do not meet the quality standards to be consumed as a natural fruit can be used. In this way, these fruits can contribute as a potential use to reduce agro-industrial waste and as a natural colorant.
Naranjilla is a native fruit from the subtropical Andean regions, which has high ascorbic acid concentrations, making it a fruit rich in antioxidants. Naranjilla-enriched bread contributes with beneficial compounds for the consumer.