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Research to improve access and equity for women of color in higher education offers insights on the nuanced challenges and opportunities that exist today. In the past…
Research to improve access and equity for women of color in higher education offers insights on the nuanced challenges and opportunities that exist today. In the past, women of color confronted overt discrimination in their pursuit of educational and career attainment. Today, they are likely to face more subtle practices couched in what Miller (2010) coins, the “deservingness” status suggesting that although women of color have gained entry in the academy, they come under scrutiny in their faculty and administrative roles. Despite such scrutiny, their presence in the academy has brought them a measure of social independence, ushered in multiple perspectives to enrich students' learning experiences, and have challenged traditional approach to research knowledge, and leadership theories and practices (Glazer Raymo, 2008; Jean-Marie, Williams & Sherman, 2009; Lloyd-Jones, 2009).
Many Black women continue to negotiate their way within higher education institutions, which are influenced by social class, race, and gender biases. Several scholars…
Many Black women continue to negotiate their way within higher education institutions, which are influenced by social class, race, and gender biases. Several scholars contend that Black women’s objectification as the “other” and “outsider within” (Collins, 2000; Fitzgerald, 2014; Jean-Marie, 2014) is still apparent in today’s institutions yet many persist to ascend to top leadership positions (Bates, 2007; Epps, 2008; Evans, 2007; Hamilton, 2004; Jean-Marie, 2006, 2008). In particular, the inroads made by Black women administrators in both predominantly white colleges (PWIs) as well as historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) depict a rich and enduring history of providing leadership to effect social change in the African American community (i.e., uplift the race) and at large (Bates, 2007; Dede & Poats, 2008; Evans, 2007; Hine, 1994; Miller & Vaughn, 1997). There is a growing body of literature exploring Black women’s leadership in higher education, and most research have focused on their experiences in predominantly white institutions (Bower & Wolverton, 2009; Dixon, 2005; Harris, Wright, & Msengi, 2011; Jordan, 1994; Rusher, 1996; Turner, 2008). A review of the literature points to the paucity of research on their experiences and issues of race and gender continue to have an effect on the advancement of Black women in the academy. In this chapter, we examine factors that create hindrance to the transformation of the composition, structure, and power of leadership paradigm with a particular focus on Black women administrators and those at the presidency at HBCUs. From a review of the literature, our synthesis is based on major themes and subthemes that emerged and guide our analysis in this chapter. The chapter concludes with recommendations for identifying and developing Black women leaders to diversify the leadership pipeline at HBCUs and other institutions for the future.
Given the demographic shift in American society, higher education institutions are faced with the challenge to prepare students for a diverse society. Efforts to diversify…
Given the demographic shift in American society, higher education institutions are faced with the challenge to prepare students for a diverse society. Efforts to diversify the gender, racial, and ethnic makeup of faculty and administrators in universities show promise but institutional challenges threaten such progress. In this chapter, the author explores the breadth and scope of scholarship on the trends impacting women of color in higher education. Two major areas are the focus of analysis: (1) transformation of higher education since the passage of Title IX. Widely associated with athletics and now celebrating 40 years since its enactment, Title IX has been instrumental in creating access for women of diverse ethnic and racial background. Historically, Title IX is credited with closing the gender gap in higher education; but has it really?; and (2) dismantling structural and social barriers that threaten authentic inclusion of women of color. The interlocking effects of gender, race, and ethnicity can compound pressures of the workplace environment for women of color (Turner, 2002). Coupled with that are climate issues that can create an uninviting or hostile environment for women of color in faculty or administrative positions. The diversification of women of color in higher education has important implications for policy and practice, and raises important questions about institutional commitments.
Building on earlier research and discourse on women in educational leadership, we conducted a qualitative secondary analysis on conceptual and empirical research. A…
Building on earlier research and discourse on women in educational leadership, we conducted a qualitative secondary analysis on conceptual and empirical research. A permeating theme throughout literature was women’s ability to negotiate gender and race in a historically marginalizing working environment. A key assertion made by authors is that by incorporating this dimension to their leadership can be helpful for those who search for life-sustaining contexts while simultaneously empowering themselves as agents of transformative change (Shields, 2010) who align everyday practice with core values. Implications and recommendation are offered that capture the impact of how women leadership behaviors interplay with race and gender.
The facilitation of learning of leadership for social justice involves experiences which go beyond awareness (Cambron-McCabe & McCarthy, 2005; Jean-Marie et al., 2009). Brooks and Miles (2008) contend “awareness of social injustices is not sufficient, school leaders must act when they identify inequity. School leaders are not only uniquely positioned to influence equitable educational practices, their proactive involvement is imperative” (p. 107). However, if school leaders have not been exposed in their preparation programs on the “need to, why, and how to act,” they will struggle to challenge inherent practices when they are in school leadership positions. To build capacity for school leaders to take socially just actions, learning experiences about social justice should include critical literature and research that interrogate the principles of equity, access, and equality that vehemently shed light on school practices.
The two-edited volumes, Women of Color: Turbulent Past, Promising Future and Women of Color: Changing Directions and New Perspectives focus on the increased presence of African American, Latina/Hispanic American, Native American, and Asian/Pacific Islander American women in senior-level administrative and academic positions in higher education and on ways they are transforming the social and political climate to be more inclusive of women of color. The chapters draw from theoretical, empirical, and reflective perspectives, and identify gaps in the research, compare and contrast the experiences of women of color, and explore possible linkages between their experiences. The compilation underscores three themes important to the advancement of women of color in higher education that have implications for future generations of diverse racial and ethnic groups in the academy.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss methodological challenges facing US scholars when conducting international research; and to present personal reflections…
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss methodological challenges facing US scholars when conducting international research; and to present personal reflections as educational leadership faculty in the USA conducting and publishing on research undertaken in Haiti and Thailand.
This study drew from educational leadership literature and personal experiences to identify methodological challenges to conducting and publishing international research in the field of educational leadership.
The methodological challenges facing international research – language, data, publication, and career incentives – should not be reasons to hinder scholars from conducting research in international contexts. Allowing methodological deterrents to impede international research limits US scholar engagement in global conversations and places the field of educational leadership in the USA at risk of a parochial and myopic future.
This paper explores the methodological reasons as to why US scholars are not engaging in international research and provides two vignettes of faculty research in international contexts. This discussion is valuable for faculty interested in or presently conducting research beyond US borders.