Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Elise Golan and Fred Kuchler

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role that mandatory genetically modified (GM) labeling versus voluntary labeling has played in the split between those countries…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role that mandatory genetically modified (GM) labeling versus voluntary labeling has played in the split between those countries with small GM markets and those with large GM markets.

Methodology/approach – Data on product introductions and other market evidence are used to examine market outcomes and identify the likely drivers of GM market bifurcation.

Findings – Labeling has negligible effects on consumer choice or on GM differentiation costs and therefore does not explain the split in GM market outcomes. Other factors have driven market outcomes: namely, consumer confidence in government and the safety of the food supply, competition among manufacturers and retailers, market momentum, and most importantly, the affordability of a non-GM strategy. Ultimately, a non-GM market strategy is feasible only if consumers are willing to cover the additional costs associated with non-GM production and marketing. The two elements composing the cost/price wedge between GM and non-GM products – the cost-reducing benefits of the GM technology and the costs of differentiating non-GM products – therefore play an important role in market outcomes. In the mid-1990s, when producers, manufacturers, and retailers were determining their strategies, neither element was very large. As a result, both GM and non-GM marketing strategies were economically feasible.

Practical implication – Regardless of the labeling regime, changes in the cost/price wedge between GM and non-GM products could change the mix of GM and non-GM products on the market.

Originality/value of paper – This analysis extends the literature by focusing on the impact of labeling regime on both consumer behavior and the cost/price wedge between GM and non-GM products.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 April 2007

Petra Tenbült, Nanne De Vries, Ellen Dreezens and Carolien Martijn

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into whether GMlabelling leads to different processing behaviour of food stimuli compared to when products are not labelled.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into whether GMlabelling leads to different processing behaviour of food stimuli compared to when products are not labelled.

Design/methodology/approach

A task was designed to investigate people's categorization behaviour as a function of information provided. In two studies each participant was randomly allocated to either the experimental “GMlabelled condition”, or the control “non‐labelled condition”.

Findings

Different processing strategies and different characteristics are used to judge products that are labelled as genetically modified or not. GM labelling of foods is interpreted to induce analytical processing of information and therefore the products are classified relatively more often on the basis of verifiable categorization criteria compared to when they were not labelled as GM. When products are not labelled as GM, information is more likely to be automatically processed and non‐verifiable categorization criteria are used.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the processes that labelling as GM brings about.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Linda Ferrari, Chad M. Baum, Alessandro Banterle and Hans De Steur

This study jointly examines consumer attitudes towards gene-edited (GE) food and their preferences for labelling such products. Thus, it contributes to understanding the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study jointly examines consumer attitudes towards gene-edited (GE) food and their preferences for labelling such products. Thus, it contributes to understanding the role of educational background, objective/subjective knowledge, environmental concern and socio-demographics in the context of GE food.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was administered to two generations of young individuals (millennials and Generation Z; n = 234) from two neighbouring European Union (EU) regions (Belgium and The Netherlands), which have a stringent policy on (labelling) genetically modified (GM) food. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and ordered logit models (OLMs) were employed to identify key determinants of attitudes towards GE food and GE labelling preferences, respectively.

Findings

Attitudes towards GE food were determined by environmental concern (negative) and objective knowledge (positive). Key factors influencing preferences for GE labelling were a non-hard-scientific background, knowledge about relevant policies and a negative attitude towards GE food. Preference for applying a similar labelling policy to both GM and GE was itself linked to having low, objective EU policy-related GM food knowledge and one's nationality.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to examine consumer attitudes towards GE food products, while also addressing a lack of research on GE food labelling preferences. By highlighting the preferences of young generations for a revised policy approach, this study sheds new light on the current GE debate, notably, by promoting a deeper understanding of a group which has so far received limited attention in the discourse on the acceptance of novel plant-breeding technologies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Mark Partridge and Denis J. Murphy

A selection of organic/health foods containing soya beans was tested for the presence of genetically modified (GM) material. Out of 25 samples of food products containing…

1791

Abstract

A selection of organic/health foods containing soya beans was tested for the presence of genetically modified (GM) material. Out of 25 samples of food products containing unrefined soya ingredients, ten tested positively for the presence of GM material. This was surprising because eight out of the ten GM‐positive samples were either labelled as “GM free” and/or were labelled as “organic”, both of which imply the absence of GM ingredients. In no case did any of the foods tested reach the mandatory 1 per cent threshold required for positive labelling as GM products under current European Union legislation, although one product was close to this limit. However, there was considerable batch‐to‐batch variation in the GM soya content of some of the food products, depending on the purchase date and retailer. The paper discusses the implications of these results regarding international regulations on food labelling and use of “GM free” labels or their equivalent.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 106 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2019

Sarah Lefebvre, Laurel Aynne Cook and Merlyn A. Griffiths

This paper aims to examine consumers’ opinions and behavioral intentions toward foods labeled as containing genetically modified (GM) (transgenic) ingredients across plant…

1782

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine consumers’ opinions and behavioral intentions toward foods labeled as containing genetically modified (GM) (transgenic) ingredients across plant and animal-based categories. In light of marketplace changes (i.e. labeling requirements), we explore behavioral measures based on labeling options.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies, one online projective survey using a convenience sample of consumers and two experiments conducted with Amazon mTurk adult US participants, are included.

Findings

Consumers have negative associations with GM products vs non-GM and are more likely to purchase unlabeled GM products. GM products may offer positive economic, societal and environmental benefits. However, the need for labeling overshadows these benefits and presence of GM labeling increased avoidance. Furthermore, changes in product opinion mediate consumers’ purchase intention and willingness to pay.

Research limitations/implications

GM labeling negatively influences consumers’ opinions and behavioral intentions. This is important for legislators and marketers concerned with counter-labeling effects (e.g. Non-GMO Project Verified).

Practical implications

Debates on efficacy of labeling, inclusion disclosure of ingredients, short-term risks and long-term implications are ongoing globally. Consumer reception and purchase intention can only be changed through governmental and corporate transparency.

Social implications

Widespread misinformation about GM foods, presence in our food supply, impact on health, economy, environment and the marketplace still exists. The findings reflect consumers’ responses to changes proposed by the 2016 National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard legislation.

Originality/value

With the paucity of research on consumer response to the release of a GM animal product into the food supply, this work breaks new ground as the first to examine the impact of disclosure of GM animal-based food type.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Jintao Zhan, Yubei Ma, Pengcheng Deng, Yinqiu Li, Meng Xu and Hang Xiong

The regulations for qualitative genetically modified (GM) food labeling do not effectively eliminate the information asymmetries pertaining to the consumption of GM

Abstract

Purpose

The regulations for qualitative genetically modified (GM) food labeling do not effectively eliminate the information asymmetries pertaining to the consumption of GM products. China's GM food labeling law requires the presentation of certain categories of GM products on GMO labels on packages. Such information is invaluable for understanding whether the disclosure of more information on GM foods can help alleviate information asymmetry while reducing consumer fear and risk perceptions of GM foods, and thus cause changes in their behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the heterogeneity of consumer preferences for enhanced GM food labeling, how consumer preferences are influenced by labeling information, and how these preferences vary in different consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Both descriptive statistics and econometric techniques, including the multivariate ordered Probit model, were applied to a sample of 566 urban consumers in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. All respondents were divided into two groups: people who would definitely not buy GM foods before selecting enhanced labeling information (“consumer group 1”, sample size 282) and people who would definitely not object to buying GM foods before selecting enhanced labeling information (“consumer group 2”, sample size 274).

Findings

The findings suggest that urban consumers have a preference for different types of enhanced labeling information about GM foods, that such a preference significantly influences their willingness to pay for GM foods, that there exists a large difference in the preferences of different consumer groups, and that enhanced GM food labeling information has a greater impact on those consumers who would not accept GM foods.

Originality/value

This research identifies the GM information disclosures that most affect consumer preferences and how these preferences vary across different segments of consumers, which is a current gap in the literature. The study has demonstrated that enhanced labels of GM foods with diverse information would not alter a consumer's WTP for GM foods who does not perceive the value of information from the enhanced labels, but change positively consumers with uncertainty willingness to pay before disclosure.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Anthimia M. Batrinou, Vassilis Spiliotis and George Sakellaris

The purpose of this paper is to examine how label information may affect the acceptability by young consumers of a food produced by genetic engineering methods.

1316

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how label information may affect the acceptability by young consumers of a food produced by genetic engineering methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A popular snack derived from maize (corn chip) was presented with five different labels (“organic corn”, “conventional corn”, “product that contains genetically modified (GM) corn”, “product that contains GM corn approved by EU”, “non‐classified corn”) to 229 university students in Greece in order to taste it.

Findings

The results obtained showed that the GM label evoked a deeply rooted negative attitude as more than half of participants (63 per cent) refused to taste even a single piece of the product. The product labelledGM but approved by EU” was viewed as more credible but still 28 per cent refused to sample. The conclusion was that although the feeling of trust increased considerably when the label message was supported by a certifying authority, a large proportion (almost one third) of participants refused to taste a product that had been approved by the EU for nearly a decade.

Practical implications

This result demonstrated in an emphatic way a degree of phobia concerning GM food and the importance of carefully worded labelling.

Originality/value

The attitude of consumers after direct experience with a GM food product had never been reported for Greece and these findings may serve as an exploratory tool for further investigations on GM food related attitudes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Guillaume P. Gruère

Purpose – The chapter provides a comprehensive review of trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food, identifies their main effects, and analyzes the main…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter provides a comprehensive review of trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food, identifies their main effects, and analyzes the main motivations behind their support.

Methodology/approach – The analysis is substantiated by (a) results from the literature on GM food regulations and (b) comparative statics results from a simplified three-country partial equilibrium welfare and political economic model.

Findings – The analysis shows that in a non-GM producing country, trade-related regulations will benefit producers, but not necessarily consumers. Producers' support is found to be instrumental to push for a ban, for information requirements on shipments, or for mandatory labeling of GM food products. Outside pressure groups will play the role of swing voters in cases where consumers and producers do not agree.

Research limitations/implications – The analytical model is based on simplifying assumptions on the groups and market effects of each regulation. Future research is needed to empirically validate some of the main results.

Originality/value of the chapter – The goal of the chapter is to inform economic and policy researchers on the effects of GM food trade-related regulations. The chapter provides an updated comprehensive overview of the key trade regulations of GM food. It uses a unique model to derive the main welfare effects of GM food regulations. By comparing the effects of GM food regulations in different types of countries for different pressure groups, the findings provide new insights in this area.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Basma Ellahi

Explores the scope for using genetically modified organisms by undertaking a survey which considered awareness (knowledge) of and policy implications for both the UK food…

2429

Abstract

Explores the scope for using genetically modified organisms by undertaking a survey which considered awareness (knowledge) of and policy implications for both the UK food retailer and manufacturer. Uses interviews and a postal questionnaire. Finds that the UK food retailing industry is generally well‐informed, while in contrast to the retailers, food manufacturers are, in general, poorly informed and show a lack of awareness of possible products and the implications their usage may have for their companies. Few are abreast of research and development in this area. Both retailers and food manufacturers believe that biotechnology could be applied beneficially to many aspects of food production, and are aware of the many consumer concerns and issues which need to be addressed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Dilip Babasaheb Kajale and Tilman C. Becker

The aim of this paper is to understand young consumers' (students') opinions about the mandatory labeling policy for genetically modified foods (GMF), and in-depth…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to understand young consumers' (students') opinions about the mandatory labeling policy for genetically modified foods (GMF), and in-depth analysis of determinants of young consumer support for this policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Consumer survey was conducted by using a face to face interview method for a sample of 298 students. The hypotheses of this study are risk benefit perceptions and concerns about the current labeling policy likely to determine students' support for mandatory labeling of GMF. The questionnaire employed for the survey mainly focuses on the questions such as students' perceptions about GMF and opinions about current labeling policy in India. Probit model was used to analyze the determinants of young consumers' support for this policy.

Findings

The authors found that 58 per cent of the students support mandatory labeling of GMF and 39 per cent of the students are willing to pay 10-15 per cent more price for foods under this policy. Young consumers who have knowledge about GM technology are more likely to support this policy. Young consumers' dissatisfaction with the current labeling, and demand for information about food production have a positive influence on support for this policy. Those young consumers who use food labels regularly are likely to support this policy and young consumers' trust in university for truthful information about GMF has a positive influence. Whereas, students' risk benefits perception and moral concerns about GMF have an insignificant influence.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study are that it focused only on university students and used small sample size. Hence, further studies are recommended for overall consumer representative sample.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will be helpful for further research on consumers and mandatory labeling of GMF in India, and also provide some useful information for marketing of GMF in India.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the determinants of young consumers' support for mandatory labeling policy for GMF in India.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000