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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

G.D.M. Menzies

Copper surfaces of laminates can be damaged by abrasively brushing prior to chemical processing. This is especially important where gold plated edge connectors are made to the…

Abstract

Copper surfaces of laminates can be damaged by abrasively brushing prior to chemical processing. This is especially important where gold plated edge connectors are made to the latest Post Office specification of 2·5 µm. Chemical rather than abrasive treatment results in a pore‐free surface which is vital when the gold is thin.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

G.D.M. Menzies

New methods of surface area measurement by electrolytic means have been introduced into the UK by PMD Chemicals Ltd of Coventry. Two instruments, known as the DIM and MIM systems…

Abstract

New methods of surface area measurement by electrolytic means have been introduced into the UK by PMD Chemicals Ltd of Coventry. Two instruments, known as the DIM and MIM systems respectively, are available. The instruments differ in their method of measurement and applications, but both measure the conductive surface area of photo‐resisted boards to a high degree of accuracy and can convert this area measurement via an interface unit to a rectifier current output, thereby controlling plating current density.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

G.D.M. Menzies

This paper is a digest of a series of presentations on this subject prepared and delivered by the author at a number of courses on Advanced Printed Circuit Manufacture arranged by…

Abstract

This paper is a digest of a series of presentations on this subject prepared and delivered by the author at a number of courses on Advanced Printed Circuit Manufacture arranged by the Institute of Interconnection Technology at Rewley House in Oxford over the past year. COSHH is a very complex set of regulations and, because of their importance to the industry and the extent of the penalties involved for non‐compliance, it is intended that these lectures will be repeated, and may form the subject of a one‐day symposium in the near future.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

Institute members are reminded that the Second Printed Circuit World Convention is to be held in Munich from Tuesday, the 9th of June to Friday the 12th June 1981, both dates…

Abstract

Institute members are reminded that the Second Printed Circuit World Convention is to be held in Munich from Tuesday, the 9th of June to Friday the 12th June 1981, both dates inclusive. Most members of the Institute will remember the first highly successful venture organised by this Institute in conjunction with the IMF & ECIP which was held at the Cafe Royal, London in June, 1978 to which over 700 delegates attended from over 20 countries. This year Germany is the host country and the organisers report that an equally ambitious programme has been arranged with attendances expected to exceed that of London.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

J.B. Walker

A Symposium on Circuit Technology was held at The Holiday Inn, Newcastle upon Tyne, on Thursday, 7th December, 1978.

Abstract

A Symposium on Circuit Technology was held at The Holiday Inn, Newcastle upon Tyne, on Thursday, 7th December, 1978.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Luis Mireles-Flores

This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the…

Abstract

This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the discipline during the last two decades. These trends are: (a) the philosophical analysis of economic modelling and economic explanation; (b) the epistemology of causal inference, evidence diversity and evidence-based policy and (c) the investigation of the methodological underpinnings and public policy implications of behavioural economics. The final output is inevitably not exhaustive, yet it aims at offering a fair taste of some of the most representative questions in the field on which many philosophers, methodologists and social scientists have recently been placing a great deal of intellectual effort. The topics and references compiled in this review should serve at least as safe introductions to some of the central research questions in the philosophy and methodology of economics.

Details

Including a Symposium on Bruce Caldwell’s Beyond Positivism After 35 Years
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-126-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

James M. Kauffman, Shanna Eisner Hirsch, Jeanmarie Badar, Andrew L. Wiley and Brian R. Barber

Special education in the USA is, in most respects, a 20th century phenomenon and is now governed primarily by federal legislation first enacted in 1975. The federal law in its…

Abstract

Special education in the USA is, in most respects, a 20th century phenomenon and is now governed primarily by federal legislation first enacted in 1975. The federal law in its most recent reauthorization (2004) continues to require a free appropriate public education (FAPE) for all students with disabilities, a full continuum of alternative placements (CAP) ranging from residential or hospital care to inclusion in general education, an individual education plan or program (IEP) for each student identified as needing special education, and placement in the least restrictive environment (LRE) that is thought best for implementing the IEP. Parents must be involved in the special education process. Approximately 14 percent of public school students were identified for special education in 2004–2005, but the number and percentage of students identified in most high-incidence categories as needing special education have declined in recent years (the total for all categories was about 8.5 percent of public school students in 2010). A variety of evidence-based interventions can be used to address the wide range of instructional and behavioral needs of students with disabilities and their families, including transition to further education or work, family services, and teacher education. Special education in the USA may find new sources of support and thrive or may become less common or be abandoned entirely due to criticism and withdrawal of support for social welfare programs of government.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Kathleen Lynne Lane, Eric Alan Common, Mark Matthew Buckman and Grant Allen

Tiered systems may hold particular benefit for students with intensive intervention needs, as this continuum of supports is ideally comprised of evidence-based practices. In this…

Abstract

Tiered systems may hold particular benefit for students with intensive intervention needs, as this continuum of supports is ideally comprised of evidence-based practices. In this chapter, we explore three intensive interventions: functional assessment-based interventions (FABI), First Step to Success, and Read 180 as they feature a range of practices and programs to meet students' academic, behavioral, and social needs. We define and describe each intervention, including information on essential features necessary for drawing valid inferences: treatment integrity, social validity, as well as student performance. We also provide examples of supporting evidence, featuring treatment-outcome studies documenting intervention effectiveness. We close with clarifications and considerations for meeting the multiple needs of students requiring intensive intervention efforts.

Details

Delivering Intensive, Individualized Interventions to Children and Youth with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-738-1

Keywords

Abstract

In this chapter, we examined issues related to research design and research management as applied to scientific research conducted in applied school settings. In terms of research design, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have an important role to play in advancing a scientific agenda for school-based research. However, given their enormous cost and complexity, it is important to carefully time their implementation in the development cycle. We suggested that the use of RCTs is most appropriate in the later stages of the development cycle when the focus is on demonstrating the efficacy and/or effectiveness of an intervention and establishing its generalizability under the real world conditions of schooling. We also recommended establishing a hierarchy of evidence for an intervention that involves implementing a cost-efficient mix of single case, quasi-experimental, and true experimental designs where appropriate and feasible. In examining issues related to the management of research and the implementation of a knowledge development agenda for schools, it has become apparent that treatment integrity is a keystone variable. We discussed the importance of treatment integrity, with attention to the impact on internal and external validity. Finally, we offered practical considerations to support high-quality, respectful school-based inquiry.

Details

Special Education Past, Present, and Future: Perspectives from the Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-835-8

Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Kathleen Lynne Lane, Eric Alan Common, David James Royer and Wendy Peia Oakes

Increased attention has been placed on identifying and installing evidence-based practices (EBPs) to effectively and efficiently serve students with and at-risk for learning and…

Abstract

Increased attention has been placed on identifying and installing evidence-based practices (EBPs) to effectively and efficiently serve students with and at-risk for learning and behavioral challenges. Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC, 2014) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education are often used to examine a range of strategies, practices, and programs to ascertain if they are indeed EBPs. Systematic reviews conducted to evaluate the evidence base of these potential EBPs are important as they inform practice. We contend it is important to provide well-vetted procedures for training scholars to conduct systematic reviews with replicable precision. We offer this chapter to assist scholars in conducting systematic reviews to quality appraise the methodological rigor of a body of literature using the CEC Standards for EBPs. We focus on (1) project management considerations and (2) steps and phases to support the development and dissemination of high quality, methodologically rigorous systematic literature reviews.

Details

Delivering Intensive, Individualized Interventions to Children and Youth with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-738-1

Keywords

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