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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2017

Sanjay Pinto

This chapter maps existing patterns of broad-based worker ownership and control in contemporary advanced capitalism and considers future possibilities for expanding…

Abstract

This chapter maps existing patterns of broad-based worker ownership and control in contemporary advanced capitalism and considers future possibilities for expanding democracy within firms. Section one discusses worker ownership and control arrangements in relation to different theories of the firm and shows how these arrangements map onto different national systems. Section two compares Germany, which is characterized by worker control without ownership, and the United States, which is marked by worker ownership without control. Section three explores three pathways through which broad-based worker ownership and control might be deepened and more strongly coupled in the future.

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Sharing in the Company
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-966-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

W.J. Ready, S.R. Stock, G.B. Freeman, L.L. and L.J. Turbini

Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (PWBs) respond to applied voltages by developing sub‐surface deposits of copper salts extending from anode to…

Abstract

Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (PWBs) respond to applied voltages by developing sub‐surface deposits of copper salts extending from anode to cathode along separated fibre/epoxy interfaces. These deposits are termed conductive anodic filaments (CAFs) and, in this work, the dimensions and growth patterns of a CAF have been determined by serial sectioning. The CAF growth pathway is characterised and the spatial distribution of the copper salts is quantified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using backscattered electrons. The chemical composition of the CAF is determined using energy dispersive X‐ray analysis (EDS). Prior research using high‐resolution non‐destructive X‐ray microtomography is correlated with the serial sectioning data. The failure phenomenon known as CAF may pose serious long‐term reliability concerns in electronics applications exposed to adverse and hostile environments.

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Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

L.J. Turbini, G.B. Freeman, M.H. Smith, J.D. Finney, R.D. Boswell and J.F. Lane

A new corrosion test for assessing flux residues is applied to marginally cleaned water soluble fluxed test boards and low solids/no clean fluxed test boards. This test…

Abstract

A new corrosion test for assessing flux residues is applied to marginally cleaned water soluble fluxed test boards and low solids/no clean fluxed test boards. This test method developed by Bono has been modified to accelerate the corrosion process. The corrosion mechanism observed in this study is conductive anodic filament (CAF), a corrosion mechanism proposed in 1979 by Lando et al. It is postulated that this degradation mechanism is due to the high bias voltage (190 V) coupled with the high humidity (85%) and high temperature (85°C) conditions used in this test. Important parameters in the test method are discussed and recommended refinements are given.

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Alun Epps

By the end of this chapter on minors, internet-enabled devices and online shopping behaviour, readers will be able to

  • Identify fundamental benefits and harm engendered when…

Abstract

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this chapter on minors, internet-enabled devices and online shopping behaviour, readers will be able to

  • Identify fundamental benefits and harm engendered when minors have unlimited access to internet-enabled devices

  • Locate the main catalysts of benefit and harm to minors due to internet usage

  • Show how a priori studies have created a rich and balanced narrative in the field of benefits and harm of the internet to minors

  • Argue how the benefits outweigh the harm (or vice versa) impacting on minors in unlimited use of the internet

  • Develop strategies to enhance the benefits and limit the harm caused by unlimited access to the internet

Identify fundamental benefits and harm engendered when minors have unlimited access to internet-enabled devices

Locate the main catalysts of benefit and harm to minors due to internet usage

Show how a priori studies have created a rich and balanced narrative in the field of benefits and harm of the internet to minors

Argue how the benefits outweigh the harm (or vice versa) impacting on minors in unlimited use of the internet

Develop strategies to enhance the benefits and limit the harm caused by unlimited access to the internet

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Edward N. Wolff

Inequality in the distribution of family income in the U.S., which had remained virtually unchanged since the end of World War II until 1968, has increased sharply since…

Abstract

Inequality in the distribution of family income in the U.S., which had remained virtually unchanged since the end of World War II until 1968, has increased sharply since then. In contrast, schooling and skill inequality has declined rather steadily over the postwar period. Another notable change over the past 30 years or so has been the widespread diffusion of computers. Using aggregate time-series data for the 1947–2000 period, I find that the largest effects on inequality come from office, computing and accounting equipment (OCA) investment, which accounted for about half of the rise in inequality between 1968 and 2000. The unionization rate is second in importance, and its decline over this period explains about 40 percent of the increase in inequality. The decline in the dispersion of schooling, on the other hand, plays almost no role in explaining the rise in inequality. On the basis of pooled time series, industry regressions for the 1970–2000 period, I also find that investment in OCA is positively related to changes in skill inequality, while changes in the unionization rate are negatively related.

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Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-350-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

L.J. Turbini and D. Cauffield

For a number of years electronic manufacturers of printed circuit assemblies have used rosin‐based soldering fluxes. Post‐solder cleaning was accomplished with chlorinated…

Abstract

For a number of years electronic manufacturers of printed circuit assemblies have used rosin‐based soldering fluxes. Post‐solder cleaning was accomplished with chlorinated or chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. With the elimination of these solvent options due to their destructive effect on the stratospheric ozone layer, manufacturers are considering alternative cleaners for rosin flux or new flux choices which can be cleaned with water or left uncleaned. Many of the flux formulations are relatively new and their long‐term effect on the performance of products manufactured with them is unknown. Although ionic contamination testers can alert one to the ionic levels remaining on an assembly, there is no direct relationship between the total ionic level and the corrosivity of the soldering flux. Surface insulation resistance testing is used in the industry, but the results are misunderstood by many. This is due to the fact that SIR data represent a complex dependency on a number of factors including (1) the test conditions (temperature, humidity, bias), (2) the area of interactions (often referred to as the number of squares), (3) the separation between lines on the interdigitated comb pattern, (4) the presence or absence of bias voltage during the test and (5) the nature of the substrate. All of these factors have been the driving force to develop a quantitative screening test for soldering flux residues. This test, originally reported by Dr David Bono, is being modified and developed at Georgia Tech to provide a quantitative evaluation of flux residue corrosivity. This work, in collaboration with the work being performed by the French UTE, will result in a new international standard. This paper reports the latest data on this important test development.

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2010

Marco Manacorda and Furio Camillo Rosati

This chapter uses micro data from the Brazilian Pesquisa Nacional Por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) between 1981 and 2002 to ascertain the role that local labor demand …

Abstract

This chapter uses micro data from the Brazilian Pesquisa Nacional Por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) between 1981 and 2002 to ascertain the role that local labor demand – proxied by male adult employment in the area of residence – plays in shaping the work and schooling decisions of children aged 10–15 years. We find that child work is on average procyclical, while school enrollment is essentially unaffected by local labor market conditions: As local labor demand conditions improve, children are more likely to combine work with school and are less likely to be inactive. One exception is young urban boys with older brothers: These children experience a fall in employment when local labor demand is stronger. This result is consistent with older children subsidizing younger siblings’ schooling and play time.

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Child Labor and the Transition between School and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-001-9

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Andrew E. Clark, Conchita D’Ambrosio and Simone Ghislandi

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from…

Abstract

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2012 to uncover three empirical relationships. First, life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. Second, poverty scars: those who have been poor in the past report lower life satisfaction today, even when out of poverty. Last, the order of poverty spells matters: for a given number of years in poverty, satisfaction is lower when the years are linked together. As such, poverty persistence reduces well-being. These effects differ by population subgroups.

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Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Severin V. Grabski and David Mendez

Effective land use management in lesser developed countries is problematic due to a variety of factors including inexperience and turnover of decision makers, lack of…

Abstract

Effective land use management in lesser developed countries is problematic due to a variety of factors including inexperience and turnover of decision makers, lack of communication among experts in functional areas, and scattered or missing data needed by managers to make informed decisions. This paper describes a “first step” approach toward the solution of these problems that was implemented in the Dominican Republic. The paper introduces a framework used to organize and facilitate the sharing of data needed for land use decision across multiple disciplines. The framework provided the basis for the development of a prototype agricultural geographic decision support system for use in the Dominican Republic. This system is unique in that it combines concepts from semantic data modeling and database design, geographic information systems, and knowledge‐based systems.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

L.J. Turbini, J. Schodorf, J. Jachim, L. Lach, R. Mellitz and F. Sledd

Today's emphasis on alternative flux technology as an approach to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) requires an understanding of the corrosion potential of…

Abstract

Today's emphasis on alternative flux technology as an approach to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) requires an understanding of the corrosion potential of the new fluxes. In 1989, Dr David Bono proposed that monitoring the effect of different soldering fluxes on the rate of corrosion of a copper wire printed on a circuit board would provide quantitative information on the corrosion potential of a flux. Further analysis of this testby Turbini et al. revealed that the degradation mechanism associated with Bono's test is the growth of conductive anodic filaments along the glass fibres of the epoxy‐glass boards. The original test method has been revised, and the test coupon redesigned with the goal of developing a standard, quantitative test method to characterise soldering fluxes. This paper will describe the equipment, test coupon and electrical circuitry associated with this proposed test method. Procedures chosen to reduce error sources associated with electrical noise will be reported and explained.

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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