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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

G. Kranz

Abstract

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Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

G. Kranz

Abstract

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Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Larry J. Paxton

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of past experience in managing risk and technical innovation in NASA space programs with lessons learned for new unmanned

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of past experience in managing risk and technical innovation in NASA space programs with lessons learned for new unmanned space missions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines past performance of space missions and abstracts the lessons learned for the efficient development of cost‐effective space missions.

Findings

The paper finds that large organizations build and internalize a culture at odds with risk taking and the rapid deployment of innovative solutions. Actualized management goals are often at odds with the issues that determine or insure the long‐term survival of an organization. A key issue is the management of knowledge within that system: the extrinsic knowledge of the technologies as well as the intrinsic knowledge associated with the perception and acceptance of risk.

Research limitations/implications

Innovation can be seen as being dangerous to the organization. That perception must be managed. The NASA culture that is applicable to human spaceflight may not serve the community or the organization as well when applied to unmanned missions.

Practical implications

The paper provides a simplified and brief perspective on the issues inherent in managing a change in culture in an organization that has a highly public mission.

Originality/value

While the NASA “faster, better, cheaper” program has been considered elsewhere, this paper focuses on the lessons that are applicable to the management of space missions and the development of new, cost‐effective programs. These lessons retain their value, as the new administrator Michael D. Griffin attempts to manage the transition of NASA from an organization that has been in maintenance mode to one that must embrace innovation and stay within a highly constrained funding profile.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2014

William B. Vessey

Spaceflight presents a unique environment in which multiteam coordination is often required for mission success. This chapter will explore the topic of multiteam systems…

Abstract

Purpose

Spaceflight presents a unique environment in which multiteam coordination is often required for mission success. This chapter will explore the topic of multiteam systems (MTSs) and their functioning in this environment.

Approach

This chapter describes the MTS case of human spaceflight in terms of a specific subset of the system involved in current human spaceflight missions: NASA Mission Control and the NASA astronauts aboard the International Space Station. In addition to describing the system itself, this chapter describes notable advantages and disadvantages of this particular MTS, along with potential future issues in human spaceflight and research directions for use of MTSs in spaceflight.

Findings

More than 40 years of successful human spaceflight missions have demonstrated many of the benefits and drawbacks of MTSs across some of the most challenging environments faced by any teams attempting coordination. These environmental challenges include extreme distances, limited modes of communication, complex systems, novel problems, and coordination between teams from multiple countries with differing goals and priorities. The specific advantages and drawbacks of MTSs in this environment, and the impacts of the aforementioned environmental challenges, are discussed.

Originality

This chapter examines a known operational and successful MTS that operates in an environment in which many of the standard assumptions regarding teams and MTSs may not apply.

Details

Pushing the Boundaries: Multiteam Systems in Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-313-1

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Raghu Garud and Thinley Tharchen

Institutional arrangements, while constituting subject positions, also relegate others to inhabit unlivable abject positions. Such a perspective on identity begs the…

Abstract

Institutional arrangements, while constituting subject positions, also relegate others to inhabit unlivable abject positions. Such a perspective on identity begs the question on the possibilities of institutional reform given that abjects must seek recourse, if any, from the very institutions that marginalized them. One source for reform can be found in the functioning of institutional forums vested with performative powers, such as the Supreme Court. But how do these institutional forums legitimately bring about social transformation given that precedents bind them? To address this puzzle, we analyzed two Supreme Court rulings that showcase the performativity of institutions in materializing subject/abject positions, and the reforms that are possible. One is the 2015 US Supreme Court ruling providing marriage rights to same-sex couples. The other is the 2014 Indian Supreme Court ruling that legalized a third gender. An analysis of these two rulings and a comparison across them highlights the historical yet contingent nature of identity. The analysis also highlights “citational grafting” as a key mechanism underlying institutional reform, i.e., citations to earlier instances of social transformation serving as precedents for bringing about additional changes given new circumstances.

Details

How Institutions Matter!
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-431-0

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Joanna Ho, Cody Lu and Lorenzo Lucianetti

This paper aims to examine whether and how two firm-level factors jointly moderate the relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and firm…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether and how two firm-level factors jointly moderate the relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and firm performance: (1) the “alignment” between a firm's CSR activities and risk preferences and (2) performance measurement systems (PMS).

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey responses from top managers of private Italian companies and matching archival data on the financial performance of these companies, the authors show that the positive effect of CSR activities on firm performance is contingent upon CSR–risk alignment, which creates competitive advantages, and the extent to which the firm's PMS are supportive of its strategic initiatives.

Findings

The findings suggest that to extract economic benefits from CSR activities, firms must align CSR activities with their risk preferences and rely on PMS to overcome the causal ambiguity between CSR activities and competitive advantage.

Originality/value

Overall, this study contributes to both the CSR–firm performance and consequences of PMS literature and holds significant practical implications.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Brigitte Harris, Kwan Fan Cheng and Charlotte Gorley

– This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees’ and mentors’ experiences in the program.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees’ and mentors’ experiences in the program.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 151 mentees rated their satisfaction in a post-program survey. The survey was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 mentees and 11 mentors.

Findings

In all, 87 per cent of mentees rated their learning as effective. Benefits to mentees were relevance of the learning, and senior leader/mentors use of current issues, events and personal stories. Delivery through a combination of Web conferencing and collaboration technologies was most effective. Mentors learned from mentees and other mentors. Regular and full mentee participation was an identified issue. In addition, not all mentoring teams worked well together.

Research limitations/implications

The selection criteria favored participants who had a positive experience. Including more participants who were disengaged or less active may have revealed what inhibited full engagement. Complex underlying systemic and cultural issues negatively affected mentee participation and mentoring team effectiveness. It is unclear whether this was caused by intrinsic or extrinsic barriers. Further study could shed light on how to address participation issues.

Practical implications

Selection criteria favored highly active participants who had a positive experience. Including more disengaged or less active participants may have revealed barriers to full engagement.

Social implications

Despite a context of extreme organizational churn, this program delivered cost-effective and engaging learning to a large number of employees. Recommendations are made to further strengthen the program.

Originality/value

This contextually grounded case study will be useful to those who plan to implement a group mentoring program.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Geoffrey L. Gordon, C. David Shepherd, Brian Lambert, Rick E. Ridnour and Dan C. Weilbaker

The purpose of this paper is to examine sales manager training approaches, methods, and instructors (as well as their perceived effectiveness, frequency, and assessment).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine sales manager training approaches, methods, and instructors (as well as their perceived effectiveness, frequency, and assessment).

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing a survey approach, data were collected (and analyzed) from 355 members of two associations: the United Professional Sales Association and the American Society for Training and Development.

Findings

First, internal training approaches and instructors are most commonly used and perceived as most effective. Second, sales managers are exposed to a wide variety of training content as part of their training activities. Third, the frequency, duration, and assessment of training vary widely among respondent organizations.

Research limitations/implications

The utilized sample of sales managers and trainers are employed by firms within the USA. Cultural differences could exist in training practices, training content, and perceptions of effectiveness among respondents from other countries.

Practical implications

First, sales manager training activities lie on a continuum that complicates effectiveness measurement. Second, sales manager training should be provided in the field by those who are either senior to or more knowledgeable on the training topic(s) than the sales manager. Third, internet‐based training methods are still in their infancy. Fourth, the complexities associated with the sales manager position lead to a need for varied training being delivered by diverse instructors.

Originality/value

Almost a decade has passed since the last empirical studies of the “nuts and bolts” of sales manager training practices were published. The current study builds on previous work by utilizing a larger sample and incorporating technology advances and new content areas (e.g. financial analysis, networking, partnering, cross‐functional activities).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

James Mensching and Gail Corbitt

ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems run on top of database systems, like Oracle, SQL Server and DB2. The longer these systems are in place within organizations the…

Abstract

ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems run on top of database systems, like Oracle, SQL Server and DB2. The longer these systems are in place within organizations the larger the databases are. Some sources estimate that corporate databases double or triple in size every year. As these databases grow, performance, the time it takes to complete transactions, is adversely affected. This implies that limiting the amount of data stored on an ERP system is an essential element of proper storage and data management. However, removing data from an ERP system can be a complex and risky task. Archiving ERP data is an area of academic and professional research that has had minimal attention. This paper examines the issues and provides insight into solutions associated with archiving ERP data. The issues are explored by summarizing the limited background and research in the archiving area, followed by an overview of the methodology used to arrive at the case study approach used to gather the data. Case data are presented from three different large corporate environments and the results of the data are used to recommend an archiving strategy that other companies can follow. A discussion of the implications of the proposed archiving strategy for future use and research concludes the paper.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2011

C. David Shepherd, Geoffrey L. Gordon, Rick E. Ridnour, Dan C. Weilbaker and Brian Lambert

The purpose of this paper is to examine practices of and differences between small and large organizations as they relate to the training of sales managers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine practices of and differences between small and large organizations as they relate to the training of sales managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing a survey approach, data were collected from a sample of sales managers and trainers employed by firms across the USA. Analysis was conducted between “small” and “large” organizations based on sales force size.

Findings

While many similarities do exist between small and large firms' sales manager training practices, some significant differences also exist in terms of teaching approaches, types of instructors, training locations, methods, and content utilized. Results of the current study exhibit both similarities and differences as compared to results of sales manager training practices found in earlier studies.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a sample of sales managers and trainers employed by firms within the USA. Sales manager training practices could differ due to cultural differences, the industry the firm competes in, and other factors.

Practical implications

First, sales manager training activities show more similarities than differences between small and large firms. Second, internet‐based training methods are becoming prevalent in large firms while still struggling for acceptance in smaller ones. Third, no one type of instructor is viewed as being highly effective in either small or large firms. Fourth, senior management must support and encourage positive behavioral changes associated with sales manager training or else efforts will fail.

Originality/value

The current study answers the call for research to identify contemporary sales manager training practices, building upon results of previous studies.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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