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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

Trevor Grenby

A tremendous amount of effort has gone into the search for such compounds, usually with the aid of ‘screening’ techniques in which the potential agents are added to…

Abstract

A tremendous amount of effort has gone into the search for such compounds, usually with the aid of ‘screening’ techniques in which the potential agents are added to cariogenic diets fed to laboratory animals, and any effect on the level of caries is compared with that of a control group fed on the basic unsupplemented diet. A whole book has been compiled on the subject with different contributors reviewing progress in various classes of chemicals for which caries‐protective claims have been made.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

A.M. Forster and K. Carter

The selection of lime mortars for masonry structures can be an important component of a repair or new build project. This selection is considered difficult due to the…

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1198

Abstract

Purpose

The selection of lime mortars for masonry structures can be an important component of a repair or new build project. This selection is considered difficult due to the number of variables to consider during the decision‐making process and the perceived inherent complexity of the materials. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the selection process for determining suitable natural hydraulic lime repair mortars for masonry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a conceptual and practical framework for the determination of suitable lime mortars for repair and construction of masonry structures, drawing and building on relevant, literature and existing best practice guidance on specification.

Findings

The use of various relatively newly produced data sets pertaining to durability can aid in the appropriate selection of lime mortars. These determinants must however, be correlated with traditional evaluation of exposure levels, building detailing and moisture handling performance. Building condition survey of the existing fabric is essential to enable refinement of the selection process of these mortars. The adjustment of the initially identified mortars highlighted in the best practice guide may potentially benefit from modification based on the aforementioned factors.

Originality/value

Whilst data exist to help the practitioner select hydraulic lime mortars they have never been correlated with the tacit and expressed protocols for survey and the evaluation of the performance of structures.

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Structural Survey, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Brian Nolan and Stefan Thewissen

This paper places what has happened to income inequality in rich countries over recent decades alongside trends in median and low incomes in real terms, taken as…

Abstract

This paper places what has happened to income inequality in rich countries over recent decades alongside trends in median and low incomes in real terms, taken as incomplete but valuable indicators of the evolution of living standards for “ordinary working families” and the poor. The findings demonstrate first just how varied country experiences have been, with some much more successful than others in generating rising real incomes around the middle and toward the bottom of the distribution. This variation is seen to be only modestly related to the extent to which income inequality rose, which itself is more varied across the rich countries than is often appreciated. The extent to which economic growth is transmitted to the middle and lower parts of the distribution is seen to depend on a range of factors of which inequality is only one. Sources of real income growth around the middle have also varied across countries, though transfers are consistently key toward the bottom. The diversity of rich country experiences should serve as an important corrective to a now-common “grand narrative” about inequality and stagnation based on the experience of the USA.

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Inequality, Redistribution and Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-040-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Alan Fish and Jack Wood

Identifies a number of critical spouse/partner preparation and adjustment factors derived from a larger study that examined the expatriate career management practices of…

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1505

Abstract

Identifies a number of critical spouse/partner preparation and adjustment factors derived from a larger study that examined the expatriate career management practices of 20 Australian business enterprises with a physical presence in the East‐Asian business region. Addresses concerns expressed by Adler (1991) that attention to the needs of an accompanying spouse is at best only having a neutral impact on spouse adjustment. That is, organizations have largely failed to assist spouses in establishing what Adler (1991) described as “a meaningful portable life”. Reviews spouse/partner preparation and adjustment from the views expressed by Australian business executives, expatriate and repatriates involved in business operations in East‐Asia. The views of spouses and partners were not gathered in this study. Results point to the need for re‐assessment of existing spouse/partner preparation and adjustment. While results are tentative, evidence from this study confirms the need for more attention by Australian organizations to spouse/partner preparation and adjustment, with particular attention to the development of business environment awareness and empathy which may assist in advancing Adler’s concept of “a meaningful portable life”.

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Personnel Review, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

N.S. Forster

It is now well recognised by academic andorganisational practitioners that the effectivemanagement of job changes and relocations willbe among the most important tasks…

Abstract

It is now well recognised by academic and organisational practitioners that the effective management of job changes and relocations will be among the most important tasks facing Human Resource Managers in the 1990s. To cope with the challenges of the 1990s many organisations will have to retain effective, committed, flexible and mobile managerial workforces. Hence, companies, personnel managers and individual employees can all benefit from a clearer understanding of the personal dynamics and outcomes of job changes and mobility. Also, whilst a number of guides to the legal and financial aspects of relocation are now available, none has systematically addressed the personal problems faced by employees, their families and other dependants. Hence, the focus is upon the personal and familial aspects of these dual transitions. The aim is to provide an understanding of the main issues and themes surrounding job changes and the personal side of relocation and provide detailed guides on “good practice” for employers, personnel managers, employees and their dependants.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

G. Forster and Graham Jones

Organised by ISHM‐France, this event is aimed at suppliers, manufacturers, and users of hybrid microelectronic circuits. The aim of the conference is to present…

Abstract

Organised by ISHM‐France, this event is aimed at suppliers, manufacturers, and users of hybrid microelectronic circuits. The aim of the conference is to present information on the latest innovations and trends in microelectronics. Twelve technical papers selected by ISHM‐France will be presented in two sessions.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Gerlinde Verbist and Michael Förster

This chapter discusses the major steps and issues related to the inclusion of public services in inequality research. Empirically, it investigates how the income…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the major steps and issues related to the inclusion of public services in inequality research. Empirically, it investigates how the income distribution in countries changes when the value of publicly provided services to households is included. The authors consider five major categories of public services: education, health care, social housing, childcare and elderly care. On average across OECD countries, spending on these ‘in-kind’ benefits accounts for about 13% of GDP, slightly more than the spending on cash transfers – but with considerable cross-country variation. Broadening the income concept to account for in-kind benefits considerably increases households’ economic resources. But public services also contribute to reducing income inequality, by between one-fifth and one-third depending on the inequality measure. This chapter suggests that publicly provided services fulfil an important direct redistributive role in OECD countries.

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What Drives Inequality?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-377-8

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Brit Anak Kayan

It is well recognised that Conservation Plan has attracted attention to the maintenance of historic buildings; despite diverse array of issues, particularly associated…

Abstract

Purpose

It is well recognised that Conservation Plan has attracted attention to the maintenance of historic buildings; despite diverse array of issues, particularly associated with “Green Maintenance” concept and methodology and sustainable repair approach. The theory of these three concepts currently exists, but fails to be realised in practical integration. The purpose of this paper to ask why this failure is occurring and how it influences sustainable historic environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is composed of a critical review of existing literature and an argument built based on the concept of a Conservation Plan, “Green Maintenance” concept and methodology and sustainable repair approach for historic buildings.

Findings

Despite the need of maintenance of historic buildings, this review suggests that a Conservation Plan often mitigates against its own association with “Green Maintenance”. Conversely, this could be improved by transforming the integration to be more pronounced in achieving sustainable repair for historic buildings.

Practical implications

An integration of the concept of a Conservation Plan, “Green Maintenance” and sustainable repair approach could be utilised to form the basis of decision-making process for achieving sustainable historic environment.

Social implications

An integration of Conservation Plan, “Green Maintenance” and sustainable repair approach will be positively welcomed as our society moves towards a low carbon economy and materials as well as “green” procurement.

Originality/value

Unless integration between of a Conservation Plan, “Green Maintenance” and sustainable repair is improved, much of our culturally significant historic buildings will not be repaired in sustainable ways and our future generation may lose their historic environment.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Clare Torney, Alan M. Forster, Craig J. Kennedy and Ewan K. Hyslop

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of perceptions of suitability of different materials for a repair. The use of highly cementitious materials in the repair…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of perceptions of suitability of different materials for a repair. The use of highly cementitious materials in the repair of historic masonry is causing great concern due to their incompatibility with adjacent stone and the associated accelerated deterioration which results from their use. The relatively recent development of so‐called “restoration mortars” based on a “mix and go” application, combined with the enhanced weathering of stone in a changing climate, may be contributing to the use of “plastic” repair materials on stone across Scotland.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review, case studies of repairs are presented to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using such materials, and comparisons are made with the alternative options.

Findings

The case studies presented highlight the use of a number of different stone repair materials, sometimes in combination with stone replacement, representing functional and philosophical approaches to masonry repair. However, the research has also highlighted the increasing use of plastic repairs for large‐scale repair including façade rendering, which fail to incorporate these systematic and informed approaches, and can ultimately lead to failure of repairs.

Originality/value

An evaluation of the current standing of the materials, methods and the extent of this type of repair, is vital for the substantiation of further research, and to enhance the empirical knowledge of in‐use performance, longevity and failure. The increasing emergence of restoration mortars, and their manufacture and supply on an international scale, highlights the global impact and relevance of this research.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Rana Sobh and Brett A.S. Martin

Marketers spend considerable resources to motivate people to consume their products and services as a means of goal attainment. Why people change their consumption…

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6049

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers spend considerable resources to motivate people to consume their products and services as a means of goal attainment. Why people change their consumption behaviour is based largely on these goals; many products and services are used by consumers in an effort to attain hoped‐for selves and/or to avoid feared selves. Despite the importance for marketers in understanding how current performance influences a consumer's future efforts, this topic has received little attention in marketing research. The aim of this paper is to fill some of the gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a theoretical framework and uses two studies to test this. Study 1, of 203 women, aged 27‐65, examines the predictions in the context of women and visible signs of skin aging. Feedback information is measured and approach and avoidance regulatory systems are manipulated by priming hoped‐for and feared possible selves. Study 2, of 281 undergraduate men and women, replicates the findings of Study 1 with manipulated feedback, using a different context (gym training) and a sample of both male and females.

Findings

The research shows that when consumers pursue a hoped‐for self, it is expectations of success that most strongly drive their motivation. It also shows why doing badly when trying to avoid a feared self is more motivating than doing well.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications as they reveal how managers can motivate customers to keep using a product or service.

Originality/value

The paper makes several contributions to the consumer goal research literature since little is known about how positive (hoped‐for selves) and negative (feared selves) reference points in self‐regulation differentially influence consumer goal‐directed behaviour.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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