The eclectic paradigm of Dunning (1980) (with its OLI and four motives for FDI framework) can be reconciled with the firm and country matrix of Rugman (1981). However, the…
The eclectic paradigm of Dunning (1980) (with its OLI and four motives for FDI framework) can be reconciled with the firm and country matrix of Rugman (1981). However, the fit is not perfect. The main reason for misalignment is that Dunning is focused upon outward FDI into host economies, whereas Rugman’s matrix is for firm‐level strategy covering MNE activity in both home and host countries
We suggest that the entire world may not always be the appropriate frame of reference in analyses of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) location choices. In some industries…
We suggest that the entire world may not always be the appropriate frame of reference in analyses of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) location choices. In some industries and activities, more narrowly defined geographic areas, such as regions and cities, are more relevant level of analyses. Employing global cities as the geographic frame of reference, we extend the theory of the location choices of MNEs by challenging the assumption that location attributes have identical values for all MNEs. Rather, we explicitly acknowledge the relative value of such attributes for individual MNEs, and search for the firm-specific characteristics that affect this variation. The empirical testing is based on analysis of 673 financial and professional service MNEs that entered New York and London via mergers and acquisitions (M&As). The findings confirm that it is the interaction between location and firm-specific attributes, rather than each of these independently, which affects location choices.
The purpose of this paper is to develop the notion of collaborative practice from theoretical and empirical bases.
The research analysed the concepts of collaboration, reflective practice and the primary task. It also examined the ways of working of 18 primary schools in Wales where the level of student attainment in national test scores was high, despite the pupils experiencing considerable social and economic disadvantage.
From the conceptual analysis, we contend that established models of joint working accord insufficient significance to the work task and that reflective practice is essentially a social process, which requires a task focus to be successful. In the schools we studied, there was a particular way of working which we have called “collaborative practice”. It contributed substantively to their success. Collaborative practice is highly developed and inclusive joint working on a clearly defined main task, or primary task, in a reflective way. There are thus three elements to collaborative practice: collaboration, reflective practice and focus on the primary task. All three elements must be present for collaborative practice to be successful.
The collaborative practice model provides a straightforward framework for analysing work in schools. It also gives a secure foundation on which to base successful practice in educational institutions. The collaborative practice model therefore has implications for research and practice in educational settings, for the practice of educational leaders and managers, and for the professional development of those who work in schools.
Over seas research suggests benefits in having staff from ethnic minorities for po licing multicultural communities. This study ‐ part of a larger study investigating…
Over seas research suggests benefits in having staff from ethnic minorities for po licing multicultural communities. This study ‐ part of a larger study investigating recruitment barriers and retention issues of ethnic minorities in the New Zealand Police ‐ presents the views of personnel from minority cultures about how they experience their professional roles within the organisation. The paper pre ents data from twenty in‐depth interviews conducted with police staff from one police region. Results of the study support overseas research and highlight New Zealand ‐ specific issues. While the sample size is small, the in‐depth interviews provide a rich data source. The paper presents new insights into how New Zealand Police officers from a range of cultural backgrounds perceive the contribution a culturally diverse workforce can make to policing. The study has practical implications for police recruitment and diversity policies.
Social exchange theories posit that people engage in diverse forms of exchange to enhance their own interests. Knowing whom to exchange with and what to exchange, however…
Social exchange theories posit that people engage in diverse forms of exchange to enhance their own interests. Knowing whom to exchange with and what to exchange, however, requires an understanding of other people's wants and needs. Gaining such an understanding requires skill at perspective taking: assessing what other people's preferences are and how they differ from one's own. We discuss a systematic bias in interpersonal perspective taking that can limit people's ability to reap the benefits of social and economic exchange. People systematically overestimate the similarity between their own perspective and that of other people who are in different psychological situations from their own. We show that such “egocentric empathy gaps” occur in transactions between buyers and sellers. Owners are subject to the endowment effect, valuing their possessions more simply because they own them. Non-owners fail to appreciate the psychological impact of endowment and thus make imperfect choices when interacting with owners. We describe how difficult it is for people to learn about the psychology of endowment and explain how misunderstanding that psychology can lead to enmity and perceptions of unfairness. We discuss the broader relevance of egocentric empathy gaps for social policy and pluralistic ignorance.
John Dunning introduced the OLI (Ownership‐Location‐Internalization) paradigm 37 years ago to explain the origin, level, pattern, and growth of MNEs’ offshore activities…
John Dunning introduced the OLI (Ownership‐Location‐Internalization) paradigm 37 years ago to explain the origin, level, pattern, and growth of MNEs’ offshore activities. Over the years, OLI has developed into perhaps the dominant paradigm in international business (IB) studies. However, the costs of being a paradigm are reflected in Dunning’s efforts to include an ever‐expanding array of IB theories and phenomena under the OLI “big tent.” In this paper, we focus specifically on the O in the OLI paradigm, tracing the history of Dunning’s ownership advantages. We argue that the modifications of O advantages over the past 37 years, as Dunning attempted to bring all IB phenomena and IB‐related theories under the OLI “big tent,” has had mixed results. However, we continue to believe that the typology of ownership advantages retains its relevance for IB scholars; that O advantages cannot and should not be subsumed within internalization advantages; and that O advantages are necessary for explaining the existence and success of the MNE as an organizational form
This paper proposes a new typology of Ownership (O) advantages as a function of their differential managerial implications in established multinational enterprises…
This paper proposes a new typology of Ownership (O) advantages as a function of their differential managerial implications in established multinational enterprises (MNEs). We argue that the mainstream typology of O advantages proposed in Dunning’s eclectic paradigm does not recognize the uniqueness of individual firms. We therefore propose a new typology of O advantages, which distinguishes among four types, based on the geographic source of such advantages and their transferability across borders. Moreover, we acknowledge the importance of resource recombination advantages. Two case examples illustrate the implications of the new typology for established MNEs.
To thrive, any individual, organization, or society needs to separate true from false expertise. This chapter provides a selective review of research examining self and…
To thrive, any individual, organization, or society needs to separate true from false expertise. This chapter provides a selective review of research examining self and social judgments of human capital – that is, expertise, knowledge, and skill. In particular, it focuses on the problem of the “flawed evaluator”: most people judging expertise often have flawed expertise themselves, and thus their assessments of self and others are imperfect in profound and systematic ways.
The review focuses mostly on empirical work specifically building on the “Dunning–Kruger effect” in self-perceptions of expertise (Kruger & Dunning, 1999). This selective review, thus, focuses on patterns of error in such judgments.
Because judges of expertise have flawed expertise themselves, they fail to recognize incompetence in themselves. Because of their flaws, most people also fail to recognize genius in other people and superior ideas.
The review suggests that organizations have trouble recognizing those exhibiting the highest levels of expertise in their midst. People in organizations also fail to identify the best advice and correct flawed ideas. Organizations may also rely on the “wisdom of crowds” strategy in situations in which that strategy actually misleads because too few people identify the best idea available.
Since China initiated its “go global” policy that promotes its overseas investment, China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) has increased almost twenty times during the last 10 years, reaching $55.9 billion in 2008. The issue of internationalization of Chinese OFDI has attracted increasing attention of researchers from a business perspective. This article systematically reviews the previous studies on overseas investments by Chinese MNEs and discusses the characteristics of Chinese internationalization behavior at both firm level and country level. The internationalization of Chinese companies cannot be understood as a simple game of “catch up” with established MNEs, and more firm‐level empirical studies should be carried out on how these characteristics influence firms’ strategic decisions.
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.