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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

G. Coates

Four decades ago, Whyte (1956) described how a new human expression had become universally evident. This was the notion of the “Organisation Man”, an early corporate…

Abstract

Four decades ago, Whyte (1956) described how a new human expression had become universally evident. This was the notion of the “Organisation Man”, an early corporate culture characterised by the middle ranks of ‐ male ‐ managers in large organisations, who were subject to a “social ethic”. Gender was not an issue. However, in a contemporary view of corporate culture, it has become crucial to understanding both notions of competitive advantage, and the thesis and influence of individual commitment to the organisation.This article deals with the issue of gender and the corporate culture thesis. Unlike many studies there is a need to make a distinction between women and men concerning their organisational perceptions and roles in relation to the corporate culture thesis. The paper is an initial analysis of research material, dealing with the above issues in relation to gender in contemporary organisations. It examines a changing notion of corporate culture to one where both men and women are implicated in the project at a full emotional level.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Martin L. Bowles and G. Coates

Much has been written about performance appraisal (PA) in terms ofits outcomes: little however, has been focused on the mediation ofactual practice, beyond simple…

Abstract

Much has been written about performance appraisal (PA) in terms of its outcomes: little however, has been focused on the mediation of actual practice, beyond simple descriptions informing its implementation. Seeks first to understand the historical implications of contemporary PA; second, examines the modern usage of PA with regard to its emphasis on managing and controlling the “image” of performance, which is then illustrated by the use of survey research, gathered from West Midlands organizations. Concludes that the original intentions of PA to manage physical performance have increasingly failed, and become superseded by the management of the “impression” of performance by both employers and employees.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

G. Coates

Looks at performance appraisal (PA), which has become an important tool in the overseeing of employees in contemporary society. Notes, however, that little work, has…

Abstract

Looks at performance appraisal (PA), which has become an important tool in the overseeing of employees in contemporary society. Notes, however, that little work, has focused on its mediation or actual practice, beyond simple descriptions informing its implementation. First examines the changing nature of employee management under PA, before investigating the contemporary usage of PA regarding its emphasis on the issue of managing and controlling the “images” of performance. Illustrates this with research, gathered from a case study in the Midlands. More specifically, focuses on the requirement on individuals to present the right image/self‐presentation as a means of subordination. Highlights, with the use of a hospital case study, some of these issues in relation to the changes taking place in the public service sector, which faces fundamental transformations to its concept of service. Concludes that, whatever the original intentions of PA were, they have seriously failed, and are superseded by the management of the subjectification of performance.

Details

Health Manpower Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-2065

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Bård Kuvaas

It is often suggested that in order for performance appraisal to positively influence employee behaviour, employees must experience positive appraisal reactions. The…

Abstract

Purpose

It is often suggested that in order for performance appraisal to positively influence employee behaviour, employees must experience positive appraisal reactions. The purpose of the present study is to examine two different models of the relationship between employee perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and self‐reported work performance: a mediation model and a moderation model.

Design/methodology/approach

Results from a cross‐sectional survey of 434 employees showed that the relationship between perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and self‐reported work performance was mediated by employees' intrinsic motivation, and strongly moderated by their autonomy orientation.

Findings

For employees with a weak autonomy orientation, the relationship was positive, but for those with a strong autonomy orientation, the relationship was negative.

Research limitations/implications

The two most important limitations, which are discussed in more detail at the end of the paper, are the cross‐sectional nature of the study and the reliance on self‐reported questionnaire data. Consequently, experimental studies are needed to examine causality issues.

Originality/value

The most interesting and practically relevant finding is that autonomy orientation moderated the relationship between perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and work performance. Accordingly, extra emphasis should be put on participative and autonomy supportive application of performance appraisal involving employees with a strong autonomy orientation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

G. Coates

Reports that performance appraisal (PA) has become an important tool in “controlling” employees in modern public industries. Little work, however, has focused on its…

Abstract

Reports that performance appraisal (PA) has become an important tool in “controlling” employees in modern public industries. Little work, however, has focused on its mediation or actual practice in relation to different groups, such as women and ethnic groups. Examines the changing nature of employee management under PA in relation to how it affects the role of women in organizations. Illustrates with research, gathered from a case study in the midlands. Moves analysis beyond the individual‐collectivist tradition towards assessing the subtle control strategies now employed in the contemporary form of 1990s management. More specifically, illustrates the requirement for women to make the correct self‐presentation as a means of “getting on” and, from a managerial stance, of subordinating them. The use of a hospital case study highlights some of these issues in relation to the changes taking place in the public service sector, which faces fundamental transformations to its concept of service. Concludes that PA has seriously affected the role of women in public health organizations and that PA has seriously failed to meet the needs of women.

Details

Health Manpower Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-2065

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Iris Barbosa and Carlos Cabral‐Cardoso

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which Portuguese companies have incorporated equality‐ and diversity‐related issues into their management discourse…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which Portuguese companies have incorporated equality‐ and diversity‐related issues into their management discourse, and examine the prevalent rhetoric on these matters.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive content analysis of the web sites of the 500 largest companies plus the 20 best companies to work for in Portugal, in 2005, according to the ranking of The Great Place to Work® Institute Portugal.

Findings

The analysis of the web site data shows that equality and diversity rhetoric mirrors, to a large extent, the dominant US discourse and ignores the necessary adaptation to the local context. However, there are significant differences in the adopted rhetoric according to the origin of the ownership control (native vs foreign) and the intended audience (local vs global). Native owned companies with web sites intended to a local audience tend to ignore diversity issues altogether.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to a single country's data, and to the discourse rather than actual practices. However, the paper adds to the debate on the globalization of management knowledge stressing the limitations of adopting the “one size fits all” management rhetoric as opposed to developing rhetoric more appropriate and that fits into the local context.

Originality/value

The paper provides an account of the equality and diversity rhetoric adopted by the most prominent organizations operating in Portugal, suggesting that such rhetoric is mainly for external consumption.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Mahsa Pouraliakbarimamaghani, Mohammad Mohammadi and Abolfazl Mirzazadeh

When designing an optimization model for use in a mass casualty event response, it is common to encounter the heavy and considerable demand of injured patients and…

Abstract

Purpose

When designing an optimization model for use in a mass casualty event response, it is common to encounter the heavy and considerable demand of injured patients and inadequate resources and personnel to provide patients with care. The purpose of this study is to create a model that is more practical in the real world. So the concept of “predicting the resource and personnel shortages” has been used in this research. Their model helps to predict the resource and personnel shortages during a mass casualty event. In this paper, to deal with the shortages, some temporary emergency operation centers near the hospitals have been created, and extra patients have been allocated to the operation center nearest to the hospitals with the purpose of improving the performance of the hospitals, reducing congestion in the hospitals and considering the welfare of the applicants.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors research will focus on where to locate health-care facilities and how to allocate the patients to multiple hospitals to take into view that in some cases of emergency situations, the patients may exceed the resource and personnel capacity of hospitals to provide conventional standards of care.

Findings

In view of the fact that the problem is high degree of complexity, two multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithms, including non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and non-dominated ranking genetic algorithm (NRGA), were proposed to solve the model where their performances were compared in terms of four multi-objective metrics including maximum spread index (MSI), spacing (S), number of Pareto solution (NPS) and CPU run-time values. For comparison purpose, paired t-test was used. The results of 15 numerical examples showed that there is no significant difference based on MSI, S and NPS metrics, and NRGA significantly works better than NSGA-II in terms of CPU time, and the technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution results showed that NRGA is a better procedure than NSGA-II.

Research limitations/implications

The planning horizon and time variable have not been considered in the model, for example, the length of patients’ hospitalization at hospitals.

Practical implications

Presenting an effective strategy to respond to a mass casualty event (natural and man-made) is the main goal of the authors’ research.

Social implications

This paper strategy is used in all of the health-care centers, such as hospitals, clinics and emergency centers when dealing with disasters and encountering with the heavy and considerable demands of injured patients and inadequate resources and personnel to provide patients with care.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to shed light onto the formulation and the solution of a three-objective optimization model. The first part of the objective function attempts to maximize the covered population of injured patients, the second objective minimizes the distance between hospitals and temporary emergency operation centers and the third objective minimizes the distance between the warehouses and temporary centers.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2014

Cheng-Wei Wu and Jeffrey J. Reuer

In M&A markets, acquirers face a hold-up problem of losing the value of investments they make in due diligence, negotiations, and post-acquisition planning if targets…

Abstract

In M&A markets, acquirers face a hold-up problem of losing the value of investments they make in due diligence, negotiations, and post-acquisition planning if targets would pursue the options of waiting for better offers or selling to an alternative bidder. This chapter extends information economics to the literature on M&A contracting by arguing that such contracting problems are more likely to occur for targets with better outside options created by the information available on their resources and prospects. We also argue that acquirers address these contracting problems by using termination payment provisions to safeguard their investments. While previous research in corporate strategy and finance has suggested that certain factors can facilitate an acquisition by reducing a focal acquirer’s risk of adverse selection (e.g., signals, certifications), we note that these same factors can make the target attractive to other potential bidders and can exacerbate the risk of hold-up, thereby leading acquirers to use termination payment provisions as contractual safeguards.

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Meilinda F.N. Maghfiroh and Shinya Hanaoka

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of the dynamic vehicle routing problem for last mile distribution during disaster response. The authors explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of the dynamic vehicle routing problem for last mile distribution during disaster response. The authors explore a model that involves limited heterogeneous vehicles, multiple trips, locations with different accessibilities, uncertain demands, and anticipating new locations that are expected to build responsive last mile distribution systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified simulated annealing algorithm with variable neighborhood search for local search is used to solve the last mile distribution model based on the criterion of total travel time. A dynamic simulator that accommodates new requests from demand nodes and a sample average estimator was added to the framework to deal with the stochastic and dynamicity of the problem.

Findings

This study illustrates some practical complexities in last mile distribution during disaster response and shows the benefits of flexible vehicle routing by considering stochastic and dynamic situations.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focuses day-to-day distribution on road/land transportation for distribution, and additional transportation modes need to be considered further.

Practical implications

The proposed model offers operational insights for government disaster agencies by highlighting the dynamic model concept for supporting relief distribution decisions. The result suggests that different characteristics and complexities of affected areas might require different distribution strategies.

Originality/value

This study modifies the concept of the truck and trailer routing problem to model locations with different accessibilities while anticipating the information gap for demand size and locations. The results show the importance of flexible distribution systems during a disaster for minimizing the disaster risks.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Sara Jebbor, Chiheb Raddouane and Abdellatif El Afia

Hospitals recently search for more accurate forecasting systems, given the unpredictable demand and the increasing occurrence of disruptive incidents (mass casualty…

Abstract

Purpose

Hospitals recently search for more accurate forecasting systems, given the unpredictable demand and the increasing occurrence of disruptive incidents (mass casualty incidents, pandemics and natural disasters). Besides, the incorporation of automatic inventory and replenishment systems – that hospitals are undertaking – requires developed and accurate forecasting systems. Researchers propose different artificial intelligence (AI)-based forecasting models to predict hospital assets consumption (AC) for everyday activity case and prove that AI-based models generally outperform many forecasting models in this framework. The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate AI-based forecasting model(s) for predicting hospital AC under disruptive incidents to improve hospitals' response to disasters/pandemics situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors select the appropriate AI-based forecasting models according to the deduced criteria from hospitals' framework analysis under disruptive incidents. Artificial neural network (ANN), recurrent neural network (RNN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and learning-FIS (FIS with learning algorithms) are generally compliant with the criteria among many AI-based forecasting methods. Therefore, the authors evaluate their accuracy to predict a university hospital AC under a burn mass casualty incident.

Findings

The ANFIS model is the most compliant with the extracted criteria (autonomous learning capability, fast response, real-time control and interpretability) and provides the best accuracy (the average accuracy is 98.46%) comparing to the other models.

Originality/value

This work contributes to developing accurate forecasting systems for hospitals under disruptive incidents to improve their response to disasters/pandemics situations.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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