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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Xingya Wang and Guangchang Pang

This paper aims to provide a detailed review of weak interaction biosensors and several common biosensor methods for magnifying signals, as well as judiciously guide…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a detailed review of weak interaction biosensors and several common biosensor methods for magnifying signals, as well as judiciously guide readers through selecting an appropriate detecting system and signal amplification method according to their research and application purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper classifies the weak interactions between biomolecules, summarizes the common signal amplification methods used in biosensor design and compares the performance of different kinds of biosensors. It highlights a potential electrochemical signal amplification method: the G protein signaling cascade amplification system.

Findings

Developed biosensors which, based on various principles, have their own strengths and weaknesses have met the basic detection requirements for weak interaction between biomolecules: the selectivity, sensitivity and detection limit of biosensors have been consistently improving with the use of new signal amplification methods. However, most of the weak interaction biosensors stop at the research stage; there are only a minority realization of final commercial application.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates the status of research and application of weak interaction biosensors systematically. The G protein signaling cascade amplification system proposal offers a new avenue for the research and development of electrochemical biosensors.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Andrei Novac and Robert G. Bota

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the…

Abstract

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the intricacies of processing channels in psychotherapy and propose the term transprocessing (as in transduction and processing combined) for the underlying mechanisms. Through transprocessing the brain processes multimodal memories and creates reparative solutions in the course of psychotherapy. Transprocessing is proposed as a stage-sequenced mechanism of deconstruction of engrained patterns of response. Through psychotherapy, emotional-cognitive reintegration and its consolidation is accomplished. This process is mediated by cellular and neural plasticity changes.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1970

This is indeed the age of revolution, when timeless attitudes are changing and new ways of living being born. To most it is a bewildering complex, with uneasy forbodirtgs…

Abstract

This is indeed the age of revolution, when timeless attitudes are changing and new ways of living being born. To most it is a bewildering complex, with uneasy forbodirtgs of the outcome. Improvement and change, there must always be—although change is not necessarily progress—but with unrest in the schools, universities and industry, one naturally questions if this is the right time for such sweeping reorganization as now seems certain to take place in local government and in the structure of the national health service. These services have so far escaped the destructive influences working havoc in other spheres. Area health boards to administer all branches of the national health service, including those which the National Health Service Act, 1946 allowed local health authorities to retain, were recommended by the Porritt Committee a number of years ago, when it reviewed the working of the service.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Raquel del Moral, Jorge Navarro and Pedro C. Marijuán

The purpose of this paper is to advocate a change of perspective in the development of information science. At stake is whether this science will be able to make sense of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advocate a change of perspective in the development of information science. At stake is whether this science will be able to make sense of both the astounding new practices in the world of knowledge and the even more astounding social transformations that revolve around information technologies. Tentatively a new way of thinking could be articulated along the guidelines herein discussed. An initial and important aspect concerns the definition of information itself. Rather than continuing with the endless discussions on what is information, it will be proposed, first, that information is indefinable per se; and second, that a consensus notion(s) might be established on how information should be handled in the core fields – or at least in the analysis of some prototypical “informational entities”.

Design/methodology/approach

The research strategy proposed, naturalistic and empirically oriented, is based on the intertwining of self-production and communication flows as fundamental characteristics of informational entities – about “being in the world” in the informational way. Living cells, organisms (nervous systems), individuals, enterprises-markets, and societies would manifest these characteristics. In all of these existential realms, it is the collective action of communicating, self-producing agents or entities (“informational” ones, for short), connected in multiple, flexible ways, what makes possible the unfathomable complexity and adaptability emerging at all functional scales.

Findings

Along this new perspective, meaning, knowledge, and intelligence may be approached rather consistently. The new conceptualizations may also be linked with the information revolution and the extraordinary expansion of knowledge in the times; a parallel with the knowledge-fundamentals of biological complexity will be suggested.

Originality/value

Among the many problems to tackle for a renewed information science, a relevant matter concerns the way to organize the dialogue among so many different disciplinary perspectives dealing with information: it becomes an open question, indeed.

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Angelica Carreira dos Santos, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Jessica Almeida da Cruz Ferreira, Odair Aguiar, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg and Claudia Cristina Alves

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on liver histopathology and TLR-4, NFκB and TNF-α gene…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on liver histopathology and TLR-4, NFκB and TNF-α gene expression involved in the inflammatory cascade and pathogenesis of experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Design/methodology/approach

Wistar male adult rats (n = 40) were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (60 days). On Day 30 of hypercholesterolemic conditions, rats were subdivided in five groups: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), prebiotic (PRE), probiotic (PRO) and synbiotic (SYN). All rats were sacrificed on Day 60. Liver tissue was used to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression of TLR-4, TNF-α and NFκB was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR.

Findings

Histopathological analysis: PC showed more changes than NC, and PRE and SYN showed fewer alterations than PC. Gene expression analysis: PRE showed higher TLR-4, and NFκB and TNF-α compared to PC. Also, PRE showed higher TLR-4 when compared to PRO and SYN. SYN group revealed higher TLR-4 and NFκB expressions compared to PC. PRO group also showed higher NFκB expression compared to PC.

Originality/value

NAFLD is a significant health concern, and it found that prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation could have positive effects as a nonpharmacological approach to control this disease.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Bushra Rafique, Mudassir Iqbal, Tahir Mehmood and Muhammad Ashraf Shaheen

This review aims to focus on recent reported research work on the construction and function of different electrochemical DNA biosensors. It also describes different…

1421

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to focus on recent reported research work on the construction and function of different electrochemical DNA biosensors. It also describes different sensing materials, chemistries of immobilization probes, conditions of hybridization and principles of transducing and amplification strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The human disease-related mutated genes or DNA sequence detection at low cost can be verified by the electrochemical-based biosensor. A range of different chemistries is used by the DNA-based electrochemical biosensors, out of which the interactions of nanoscale material with recognition layer and a solid electrode surface are most interesting. A diversity of advancements has been made in the field of electrochemical detection.

Findings

Some important aspects are also highlighted in this review, which can contribute in the creation of successful biosensing devices in the future.

Originality/value

This paper provides an updated review of construction and sensing technologies in the field of biosensing.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Chao Liu, Jing Liu, Li Xu and Wei Xiang

Entomology is a useful tool when applied to engineering challenges that have been solved in nature. Especially when these special abilities of olfactory sensation, vision…

Abstract

Purpose

Entomology is a useful tool when applied to engineering challenges that have been solved in nature. Especially when these special abilities of olfactory sensation, vision, auditory perception, fly, jump, navigation, chemical synthesis, exquisite structure and others were connected with mechanization, informationization and intelligentization of modern science and technology, and produced innumerable classical bionic products. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

All kinds of special abilities of insects and application status have been described and discussed in order to summarize the advanced research examples and supply bibliographic reference to the latters. Future perspectives and challenges in the use of insect bionics were also given.

Findings

In the period of life sciences and information sciences, insect bionics not only promoted the development of modern science and technology on the sides of mechanics, molecule, energy, information and control greatly but also provided new ideas and technologies for the crisis of science and technology, food, environment and ecosystem.

Originality/value

It may provide strategies to solve the problems and be a source of good ideas for researchers.

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Yijun Teh, Asral Bahari Jambek and Uda Hashim

This paper aims to discuss a nanoscale biosensor and its signal analysis algorithms.

1058

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss a nanoscale biosensor and its signal analysis algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, five nanoscale biosensors are reviewed, namely, silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor biosensors, polysilicon nanogap capacitive biosensors, nanotube amperometric biosensors, gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors and quantum dot-based electrochemical biosensors.

Findings

Each biosensor produces a different output signal depending on its electrical characteristics. Five signal analysers are studied, with most of the existing signal analyser analyses based on the amplitude of the signal. Based on the analysis, auto-threshold peak detection is proposed for further work.

Originality/value

Suitability of the signal processing algorithm to be applied to nano-biosensors was reported.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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