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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

G Roscoe and E W Cookson

Describes the various sensing techniques that can be employed to monitorhydrocarbons in water, which can be applied to continuous organic monitoringas well as the…

Abstract

Describes the various sensing techniques that can be employed to monitor hydrocarbons in water, which can be applied to continuous organic monitoring as well as the detection of major chemical spills. Outlines the methods of analysing water to measure for total carbons, total organic carbons, volatile chemicals and total oxygen demand and the problems of making effective measurements. Concludes that successful monitoring of hydrocarbons in water often requires a tailored approach depending on the characteristics of the sample and the site of the instruments, and therefore close consultation with the monitoring authorities and the instrument manufacturer are essential.

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Sensor Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Abstract

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Teacher Preparation in Australia: History, Policy and Future Directions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-772-2

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Allan Discua Cruz, Leonardo Centeno Caffarena and Marcos Vega Solano

There is a growing interest in understanding the strategic behaviour of family firms producing international commodities such as coffee, particularly in contexts where…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing interest in understanding the strategic behaviour of family firms producing international commodities such as coffee, particularly in contexts where decisions about what products to sell, where to commercialise them and how to promote them appear to be highly based on both business and family aspects. The purpose of this paper is to explore product differentiation strategies in family firms in the specialty coffee industry across Latin American countries. Whilst the socioeconomic relevance of coffee production in Central America is unequivocal, the approach and rationale of families that engage in specialty coffee production remain underexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines product differentiation in specialty coffee family farms across countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The study relies on in-depth interviews, case studies and an interpretative approach to unpick the dynamics of product differentiation by families in business dedicated to producing specialty coffee.

Findings

The findings show that product differentiation in specialty coffee family farms is influenced by both business and family aspects and driven by entrepreneurial stewards. Coffee-farming families can engage in product differentiation through a shared vision, a combination of traditional and specialised knowledge, and through the continuous development of an exchange network. The findings reveal a connection between families in business balancing family and business interests, and the strategic intention to build up their assets entrepreneurially over time.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on stewardship and strategic behaviour in family firms when families in business engage in differentiating their products in a highly competitive industry. More specifically, this study focuses on companies across countries where coffee is of crucial socioeconomic importance, and where the said companies are owned and managed by families. The study expands understanding of product differentiation in family-enterprise-first businesses and suggests that the family elements in differentiation can be explained through an entrepreneurial stewardship perspective.

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Thomas O'Donoghue and Keith Moore

Abstract

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Teacher Preparation in Australia: History, Policy and Future Directions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-772-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 June 2010

Daniele Besomi

Business cycle theory is normally described as having evolved out of a previous tradition of writers focusing exclusively on crises. In this account, the turning point is…

Abstract

Business cycle theory is normally described as having evolved out of a previous tradition of writers focusing exclusively on crises. In this account, the turning point is seen as residing in Clément Juglar's contribution on commercial crises and their periodicity. It is well known that the champion of this view is Schumpeter, who propagated it on several occasions. The same author, however, pointed to a number of other writers who, before and at the same time as Juglar, stressed one or another of the aspects for which Juglar is credited primacy, including the recognition of periodicity and the identification of endogenous elements enabling the recognition of crises as a self-generating phenomenon. There is indeed a vast literature, both primary and secondary, relating to the debates on crises and fluctuations around the middle of the nineteenth century, from which it is apparent that Juglar's book Des Crises Commerciales et de leur Retour Périodique en France, en Angleterre et aux États-Unis (originally published in 1862 and very much revised and enlarged in 1889) did not come out of the blue but was one of the products of an intellectual climate inducing the thinking of crises not as unrelated events but as part of a more complex phenomenon consisting of recurring crises related to the development of the commercial world – an interpretation corroborated by the almost regular occurrence of crises at about 10-year intervals.

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A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-060-6

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Book part
Publication date: 22 September 2015

Monica L. Smith

This paper examines the conditions under which ancient peoples might have developed a concept of “sustainability,” and concludes that long-term resource management…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the conditions under which ancient peoples might have developed a concept of “sustainability,” and concludes that long-term resource management practices would not have been articulated prior to the development of the first cities starting c. 6,000 years ago.

Methodology/approach

Using biological concepts of population density and niche-construction theory, cities are identified as the first places where pressures on resources might have triggered concerns for sustainability. Nonetheless, urban centers also provided ample opportunities for individuals and households to continue the same ad hoc foraging strategies that had facilitated human survival in prior eras.

Social implications

The implementation of a sustainability concept requires two things: individual and institutional motivations to mitigate collective risk over the long term, and accurate measurement devices that can discern subtle changes over time. Neither condition was applicable to the ancient world. Premodern cities provided the first expression of large population sizes in which there were niches of economic and social mutualism, yet individuals and households persisted in age-old approaches to provisioning by opportunistically using urban networks rather than focusing on a collective future.

Originality/value

Archaeological and historical analysis indicates that a focus on “sustainability” is not an innate human behavioral capacity but must be specifically articulated and taught.

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Climate Change, Culture, and Economics: Anthropological Investigations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-361-7

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Remi Charpin

This paper examines nationalism as a driver of political risk and how it can lead to supply chain disruptions for foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines nationalism as a driver of political risk and how it can lead to supply chain disruptions for foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual research based on a review of the literature on nationalism and supply chain risk management.

Findings

This research unveils how economic nationalism could engender supply chain disruptions via discriminatory practices toward all foreign MNEs and how national animosity may generate additional risks for the MNEs of nations in conflict with one another. These discriminatory practices include an array of host government and grassroots actions targeting foreign MNEs. While economic nationalism and national animosity emanate from within a host country, they may stimulate geopolitical crises outside the host country and thereby affect the international supply chains of foreign MNEs.

Research limitations/implications

This research lays the foundation for analytical and empirical researchers to integrate key elements of nationalism into their studies and recommends propositions and datasets to study these notions.

Practical implications

This study shows the implications that nationalist drivers of supply chain disruptions have for foreign MNEs and thus can help managers to proactively mitigate such disruptions.

Originality/value

This study reveals the importance of integrating notions of national identity and national history in supply chain research, since they play a key role in the emergence of policies and events responsible for supply chain disruptions.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Jassim Happa and Michael Goldsmith

Several attack models attempt to describe behaviours of attacks with the intent to understand and combat them better. However, all models are to some degree incomplete…

Abstract

Purpose

Several attack models attempt to describe behaviours of attacks with the intent to understand and combat them better. However, all models are to some degree incomplete. They may lack insight about minor variations about attacks that are observed in the real world (but are not described in the model). This may lead to similar attacks being classified as the same type of attack, or in some cases the same instance of attack. The appropriate solution would be to modify the model or replace it entirely. However, doing so may be undesirable as the model may work well for most cases or time and resource constraints may factor in as well. This paper aims to explore the potential value of adding information about attacks and attackers to existing models.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates used cases of minor variations in attacks and how it may and may not be appropriate to communicate subtle differences in existing attack models through the use of annotations. In particular, the authors investigate commonalities across a range of existing models and identify where and how annotations may be helpful.

Findings

The authors propose that nuances (of attack properties) can be appended as annotations to existing attack models. Using annotations appropriately should enable analysts and researchers to express subtle but important variations in attacks that may not fit the model currently being used.

Research limitations/implications

This work only demonstrated a few simple, generic examples. In the future, the authors intend to investigate how this annotation approach can be extended further. Particularly, they intend to explore how annotations can be created computationally; the authors wish to obtain feedback from security analysts through interviews, identify where potential biases may arise and identify other real-world applications.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that the authors demonstrate how annotations may help analysts communicate and ask better questions during identification of unknown aspects of attacks faster,e.g. as a means of storing mental notes in a structured manner, especially while facing zero-day attacks when information is incomplete.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

WanLin Wang and Michael L. Free

Surfactants are important corrosion inhibitors that are used in different applications. This paper utilizes the recently developed methodology and formulae to predict mild…

Abstract

Surfactants are important corrosion inhibitors that are used in different applications. This paper utilizes the recently developed methodology and formulae to predict mild steel corrosion inhibition by alkyl pyridinium chloride and alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromide compounds. By utilizing different surfactants of varying chain lengths in different acidic media and determining the associated corrosion inhibition, the relationship between surfactant concentration, surfactant hydrocarbon chain length, surfactant critical micelle concentration, and corrosion inhibition can be evaluated. The results from this study can be used to improve relevant industrial uses of surfactants for corrosion inhibition.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2005

Lyndon Megarrity

The main focus of the study is education policy issued from “above”: that is, it is largely an examination of the contribution of Canberra officials and politicians…

Abstract

The main focus of the study is education policy issued from “above”: that is, it is largely an examination of the contribution of Canberra officials and politicians towards education for future PNG autonomy and/or independence. It will be argued that Commonwealth policy towards PNG education in the colonial period was limited conceptually by the relatively low priority accorded to PNG affairs by the Australian government, as well as the Commonwealth’s overwhelming emphasis on narrow vocational outcomes for Indigenous people. This meant that educational outcomes vital to successful independence ‐ such as civic awareness and a solid pool of professional workers ‐ were neglected, much to the future cost of PNG as a nation.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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